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长江中下游地区排水对稻麦轮作系统N2O排放以及产量的影响
何昊,李丹丹,吴泽,张天成,潘非凡,杨书运
0
(安徽农业大学资源与环境学院,合肥 230036;安徽农业大学资源与环境学院,合肥 230036; 农业农村部合肥农业环境科学观测实验站,合肥 230036)
摘要:
为探究适用于中国东部低地圩区的稻麦两熟制农田温室气体减排增效技术,以巢湖圩区稻麦轮作农田为研究对象,设置浅沟(CQ)、深沟(CS)两种麦季开沟排水处理,并以常规耕作为对照(CG),采用“密闭箱-气相色谱法”,对整个稻麦轮作周期的氧化亚氮(N2O)排放进行持续监测,并测定产量以及分析相关土壤理化性质。结果表明:(1)与CG相比,CQ、CS处理在水稻季分别减少了32.4%1和42.40%的N2O累积排放量,小麦季分别减少8.10%与9.67%的排放量。(2)开沟排水处理实现了稻麦的稳产以及增产,与CG相比,CQ和CS处理的水稻产量分别提高了1.67%和2.31%,小麦产量分别提高了5.17%和1.02%;水稻季GHGI分别显著下降了33.52%和43.70%,小麦季分别显著下降了12.62%和10.59%(P < 0.05)。(3)开沟排水明显降低水稻生育中后期5 cm地温,提高麦田土壤pH值,降低土壤含水量和有机质。(4)排水处理降低了小麦季土壤硝态氮、铵态氮以及全氮含量,并且土壤氮素水平变化更为稳定。综合来看,各处理均确保了作物产量且实现了温室气体的减排,其中以CS效果更佳,研究结果对于指导稻麦低碳种植提供一定的参考意义。
关键词:  长江中下游  稻麦轮作  氧化亚氮  土壤理化性质
DOI:10.13610/j.cnki.1672-352x.20220907.011
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFD0301301)资助。
Effects of drainage on N2O emission and yield of rice-wheat rotation system in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River
HE Hao,LI Dandan,WU Ze,ZHANG Tiancheng,PAN Feifan,YANG Shuyun
(School of Resources and Environment, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036;School of Resources and Environment, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036; Hefei Agricultural Environmental Science Observation and Experimental Station, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Hefei 230036)
Abstract:
In order to explore the greenhouse gas emission reduction and efficiency technologies for the rice-wheat double-cropping farmland in the lowland polder area of ​​eastern China, two types of shallow ditch (CQ) and deep ditch (CS) for drainage in the wheat season treatments were set up in the rice-wheat rotation farmland in polder area of Chaohu Lake, and conventional tillage was used as the control (CG).The N2O emissions were continuously monitored throughout the whole rice-wheat rotation cycle by closed box-gas chromatography method, and the yields were measured and the related soil physicochemical properties were analyzed.The results showed that: (1) Compared with CG, the CQ and CS treatments reduced the cumulative N2O emissions by 32.41% and 42.40% in the rice season, and 8.10% and 9.67% in the wheat season, respectively. (2) Drainage treatment achieved stable as well as increased yields of rice and wheat, with 1.67% and 2.31% increase in rice yield and 5.17% and 1.02% increase in wheat yield in CQ and CS treatments, respectively, compared to CG; GHGI significantly decreased by 33.52% and 43.70% in the rice season and 12.62% and 10.59% in the wheat season, respectively (P < 0.05). (3) Drainage treatment significantly reduced the 5 cm ground temperature during the middle and late stages of rice fertility, increased soil pH, and reduced the soil water content and organic matter in wheat fields. (4) Drainage treatments reduced soil nitrate and ammonium nitrogen as well as total nitrogen content in the wheat season, and soil nitrogen levels changed more stably. All treatments ensured crop yield and achieved greenhouse gas emission reduction, with CS being more effective. The study results could provide some references for guiding low-carbon rice and wheat cultivation. The results of the study provide some reference significance for guiding low-carbon cultivation of rice and wheat.
Key words:  the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River  rice-wheat rotation  nitrous oxide  soil physical and chemical properties

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