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东北-黄淮海平原旱作区作物秸秆养分资源量 及还田替代化肥潜力
汪秋云,李庆阳,柴如山,李军利,王擎运,郜红建,张世文,马东豪,张佳宝,徐明岗
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(安徽农业大学资源与环境学院,农田生态保育与污染防控安徽省重点实验室,自然资源部江淮耕地资源保护与生态修复重点实验室,安徽省绿色磷肥智能制造与高效利用工程研究中心,合肥 230036;安徽理工大学地球与环境学院,淮南 232001;中国科学院南京土壤研究所,土壤与农业可持续发展国家重点实验室,南京 210008;中国农业科学院农业资源与农业区划研究所,耕地培育技术国家工程实验室,北京 100081)
摘要:
东北-黄淮海平原旱作农业区(旱作区)是中国重要的粮食产区,估算旱作区主要作物秸秆养分和化肥替代潜力,可为该区域秸秆养分资源的合理利用和秸秆还田条件下化肥减施提供科学依据。基于2015—2018年统计年鉴数据,对旱作区各市小麦、玉米和大豆3种作物秸秆养分资源量和利用潜力进行分析。结果表明:小麦、玉米和大豆累积播种面积占旱作区作物播种面积的81.49%;作物秸秆资源年均产量分别为9 432.24万t(小麦)、13 485.91万t(玉米)和732.94万t(大豆),占全国相应作物秸秆资源总量的70.96%、51.63%和42.34%。秸秆养分总量为678.60万t,包含167.75万t(N)、67.12万t(P2O5)和443.73万t(K2O),累计占该区域三大作物推荐施肥总量的53.75%。秸秆还田模式下,小麦、玉米和大豆秸秆当季替代化肥(N+P2O5+K2O)潜力分别为188.88、138.71和38.51 kg·hm-2。小麦主要种植区(黄淮海平原)小麦秸秆可实现N 16.15 ~ 30.11 kg·hm-2,P2O5 7.89 ~ 14.71 kg·hm-2,K2O 112.18 ~ 209.16 kg·hm-2的化肥替代;玉米主要种植区(东北平原)玉米秸秆可实现N 20.39 ~ 39.85 kg·hm-2,P2O5 10.39 ~ 20.31 kg·hm-2,K2O 66.60 ~ 130.18 kg·hm-2。可见旱作区秸秆还田替代化肥潜力较大。
关键词:  旱作农业区  作物秸秆  养分资源量  秸秆还田  化肥替代
DOI:10.13610/j.cnki.1672-352x.20220907.020
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0300801, 2018YFD0800301), 土壤与农业可持续发展国家重点实验室开放基金(Y20160014)和耕地培育技术国家工程实验室开放基金(201705)共同资助。
Nutrient resources of crop straw and its potential to replace chemical fertilizers in dryland farming region of the Northeast and Huanghuaihai Plain
WANG Qiuyun,LI Qingyang,CHAI Rushan,LI Junli,WANG Qingyun,GAO Hongjian,ZHANG Shiwen,MA Donghao,ZHANG Jiabao,XU Minggang
(School of Resources and Environment, Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Farmland Ecological Conservation and Pollution Prevention, Key Laboratory of Jianghuai Arable Land Resources Protection and Eco-restoration, Ministry of Natural Resources, Anhui Engineering Research Center for Intelligent Manufacture and Efficient Utilization of Green Phosphorus Fertilizer, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036;School of Earth and Environment, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan 232001;State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008;Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, National Engineering Laboratory for Improving Quality of Arable Land, Beijing 100081)
Abstract:
The dryland farming region of the Northeast and Huanghuaihai Plain is the major grain-producing areas of China, and clearance of the nutrient resource quantity of main crop straw and utilization potential under straw returning in dryland farming region of the Northeast and Huanghuaihai Plain can provide reference data for reasonable utilization of straw nutrient resources and synthetic fertilizers reduction. Based on the China Statistical Yearbook during the period of 2015-2018, crop grass grain ratio, straw nutrient content and straw nutrient release
Key words:  dryland farming region  crop straw  nutrient resource  straw returning  substitute for chemical fertilizers

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