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等氮条件下磷钾互作对氮肥利用率及烤烟产量和质量的影响 ——15N同位素示踪法
陶怡帆,邓小鹏,赵正雄,徐照丽,欧阳铖人
0
(云南农业大学烟草学院,昆明 650201;云南省烟草农业科学研究院,昆明 650021)
摘要:
肥料合理施用在全球控制肥料施用量、降低环境污染背景下对于农业的绿色发展具有更为重要的意义,适宜的肥料配比是合理利用肥料的关键措施之一。为进一步明确不同氮磷钾比例条件下的烟叶质量特征,摸清不同肥料配比下肥料的利用率,以云烟87为材料,采用15N同位素示踪法,研究了等氮条件下不同氮磷钾配比,即不施处理(T1),常规施肥处理(1∶0.5∶2,CK),增钾处理(1∶0.5∶3,T2),增磷处理(1∶1∶2,T3)和提磷增钾处理(1∶1∶3,T4)下烤烟产质量及氮肥利用率特征。结果表明:(1)等氮条件下提磷增钾的措施显著提高烟叶的产量和产值。产量表现为T4 > T3 > T2 > CK > T1,产值表现为T4 > T2 > T3 > CK > T1。与CK相比,T2、T3和T4处理的产量分别增加了11.81%、3.48%和20.72%,产值分别增加了9.66%、1.17%和19.81%。(2)15N同位素示踪标记结果表明,等氮条件下提磷增钾措施能促进烟株对硝态氮和铵态氮的吸收,提高氮肥利用率。上、中、下部叶的铵态氮和硝态氮含量(氮分布)分别为:T4 > T2 > T3 > CK。与CK相比,T2、T3和 T4处理的氮肥利用率分别增加了16.87%、15.88%和31.00%。(3)等氮条件下增钾处理的氮肥利用率高于增磷处理,产量和产值较高。结果显示,等氮条件下提磷增钾的施肥措施促进烟株对肥料的吸收,有效提高烟株的氮肥利用率,提高烤烟产量和增加农民经济收入,为优质烟叶的生产提供一定的理论依据。
关键词:  烤烟  产量  质量  氮肥利用率  15N同位素示踪法
DOI:10.13610/j.cnki.1672-352x.20220907.022
基金项目:云南省烟草公司科技计划重点专项(2019530000241012), 云南省烟草公司重点科技项目(2018530000241017)和云南中烟工业有限责任公司科技计划(S-6016011)共同资助。
Effects of P, K ratio of nitrogen use efficiency and yield, quality of flue-cured tobacco under the same N input using 15N tracer methods
TAO Yifan,DENG Xiaopeng,ZHAO Zhengxiong,XU Zhaoli,OUYANG Chengren
(College of Tobacco Science, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming 650201;Yunnan Academy of Tobacco Agricultural Science, Kunming 650021)
Abstract:
Reasonable application of fertilizer ratio is an effective measure to control fertilizer application and reduce environmental pollution, which is a significant for the green development of agriculture. To clarify and evaluate the characteristics of tobacco leaves and improve the fertilizer utilization efficiency, the medium fertility soil was observed and the 15N tracer method were used and the effectiveness of no fertilization treatment T1, conventional fertilization treatment (1:0.5:2, CK), increasing potassium treatment (1:0.5:3, T2), increasing phosphorus treatment (1:1:2, T3) and increasing phosphorus and potassium (1:1:3, T4) treatments were designed in the field experiment to evaluate the effectiveness of yield and quality and nitrogen use efficiency of flue-cured tobacco with different P and K ratios with the same N conditions. The results suggested that: (1) The yield and economic income were increased under the treatment of increasing phosphorus and potassium with the same N conditions. The yield with the same N input were: T4 treatment > T3 treatment > T2 treatment > CK treatment > T1 treatment, and the economic income were: T4 treatment > T2 treatment > T3 treatment > CK treatment > T1 treatment. Compared with CK treatment, the yield and economic benefits in T2, T3 and T4 treatments increased by 11.81%, 3.48%, 20.72% and 9.66%, 1.17%, 19.81%,
Key words:  flue-cured tobacco  yield  quality  nitrogen use efficiency  15N tracer methods

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