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江西、湖南两省人工经营生态系统蚂蚁物种多样性 及功能特征比较研究
王亚璐,陈潇奕,郭宗林,蒋富国,王国兵
0
(南京林业大学南方现代林业协同创新中心,南京 210037)
摘要:
探究江西、湖南两省人工经营生态系统蚂蚁物种多样性分布特征及功能特征,为两省蚂蚁物种多样性的保护和持续利用提供重要的依据,以江西省、湖南省人工经营生态系统为研究样地,两省共设置11个采样单元格,每个采样单元格均设置45个1 m2的样方,分别于2019年7月和2020年7月采用改进的吸虫器法对样方内地表蚂蚁进行采集,采集后放置于无水乙醇中带回实验室进行蚂蚁物种鉴定及功能特征分析。结果表明:(1)江西、湖南两省共采集到蚂蚁2 662头,隶属4亚科24属49种。3种生境种类丰富度表现为人工林>草地>农田,湖南省的蚂蚁物种较江西省丰富;(2)江西、湖南两省3种生境物种多样性指数表现一致,为人工林>草地>农田,优势度指数表现一致,但趋势相反;江西省均匀度指数表现为人工林>草地>农田,但湖南省表现为草地小于农田,这与湖南省草地蚂蚁种类丰富度远远大于农田有关;(3)江西、湖南两省农田和人工林的群落相似性均最小,江西省农田和草地群落相似性最大,湖南省草地和人工林群落相似性最大;(4)江西省和湖南省不同蚂蚁物种功能特征表现一致:即日本弓背蚁(Camponotus japonicus)的上颚、触角柄节最长,头宽最大;宽结摇蚁(Erromyrma latinodis)的上颚、触角柄节最短,宽结摇蚁头宽最小。综上可知,湖南省蚂蚁物种资源比江西省略丰富;蚂蚁群落物种多样性和丰富度与生境的复杂程度密切相关,生境越复杂,蚂蚁物种多样性越高,种类丰富度越大,地表蚂蚁功能多样性越高;生境差异性越大,蚂蚁群落相似性越小。
关键词:  蚂蚁多样性  群落结构相似性  功能特征
DOI:10.13610/j.cnki.1672-352x.20220705.015
投稿时间:2021-08-09
基金项目:国家科技基础资源调查专项项目课题(2018FY100305)资助。
Comparative study on ant species diversities and functions of artificial management ecosystem in Hunan and Jiangxi Provinces
WANG Yalu,CHEN Xiaoyi,GUO Zonglin,JIANG Fuguo,WANG Guobing
(Co-innovation Center for Sustainable Forestry in Southern China, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037)
Abstract:
In order to explore the distribution characteristics and functional characteristics of ant species diversity in the artificial management ecosystem of Jiangxi and Hunan Provinces, and to provide an important basis for the protection and sustainable use of ant species diversity in the two provinces, taking Jiangxi and Hunan Provinces as samples, we set 11 sample cells in the two provinces with 45 quadrats in each of them. In July 2019 and 2020, we used the improved trematode method to gather surface ants in quadrats, respectively, which were put into absolute ethanol before taking to laboratory for ant species identification and functional. The results showed that: (1) 2 662 ants were gathered from Jiangxi and Hunan provinces, which belong to 4 subfamilies, 24 genera and 49 species. Hunan had abundant ant species than Jiangxi as its richness index of ecological environment was artificial forestland > grassland > farmland; (2) The species diversity indices of the three habitats in Jiangxi and Hunan provinces showed the same performance as artificial forestland > grassland > farmland, and the dominance indices showed the same performance but with opposite trends; the evenness indices in Jiangxi province showed planted forest > grassland > farmland, but in Hunan province showed grassland was smaller than farmland, which was related to the species richness of grassland ants in Hunan province was much larger than farmland. (3) There was the minimum similarity in the community of farmland and plantation in both provinces: the maximum similarity in farmland and grassland in Jiangxi, and the maximum similarity
Key words:  ant diversity  community structure similarity  functional characteristics

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