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表面活性剂及其复配对石油烃污染土壤的增溶效果
罗倩,杨兴伦,马智勇,卞永荣,谷成刚,宋洋,王芳,蒋新
0
(中国科学院南京土壤研究所,土壤化学与环境保护研究室,南京 210008; 中国科学院大学,北京 100049)
摘要:
以石油烃污染土壤为研究对象,选择十二烷基硫酸钠(SDS)、十二烷基苯磺酸钠(SDBS)和聚氧乙烯失水山梨单油酸酯(Tween80)3种表面活性剂,通过批试验,考察3种活性剂单独使用及不同复配类型对土壤中石油污染物的增溶效果,并开展效果分析和适宜性评价。结果表明:(1)SDBS、SDS 和Tween80对污染土壤中石油烃增溶作用的最佳浓度分别为6、10和 15 g·L-1,最佳固液比分别为1:15、1:20和1:15(g·mL-1),最佳处理时间为12、12和24 h,3种表面活性剂在各考察因素范围内的增溶能力始终为SDBS > SDS > Tween80。由于非离子表面活性剂受土壤吸附影响更大,导致其有效作用浓度较低,故研究中选取的阴离子表面活性剂增溶效果均优于非离子表面活性剂。(2)阴-非离子表面活性剂的复配能够减少同类型表面活性剂之间的排斥作用, SDS、SDBS与Tween80复配后有协同增溶的效果,且体系中SDS、SDBS占比越大,石油烃的洗脱率也越高。因为结构性质差异,3种表面活性剂对石油烃表现出不同配合性,再与合适的电解质助剂Na2SiO3复配后,洗脱性能均得到了强化,依次为SDBS(97.56%)> SDS(97.24%)> Tween 80(92.71%),其中Tween 80在与Na2SiO3复配后增效最为显著,洗脱效率比单独作用时提高了25.41%。因此,在油污土壤增溶洗脱处理中,清洗剂的选择和科学复配是提高洗脱效率的关键。
关键词:  石油烃污染土壤  表面活性剂  复配  增溶
DOI:10.13610/j.cnki.1672-352x.20220705.022
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFC18020006, 2020YFC18086001)资助。
The solubilization effect of surfactants and their combinations on petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soil
LUO Qian,YANG Xinglun,MA Zhiyong,BIAN Yongrong,GU Chenggang,SONG Yang,WANG Fang,JIANG Xin
(Department of Soil Chemistry and Environmental Protection, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049)
Abstract:
In this paper, three surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) and polysorbate 80 (Tween80), were selected to study the solubilization of petroleum hydrocarbons-contaminated soil. The solubilization effect of surfactants on petroleum pollutants in soil was investigated by batch experiments, and the effect analysis and suitability evaluation were also conducted. The results showed that: (1) The optimal concentrations of SDBS, SDS and Tween80 for the solubilization of petroleum hydrocarbons in contaminated soil were 6, 10 and 15 g·L-1, respectively, the best solid-liquid ratios were 1:15, 1:20 and 1:15 (g·mL-1), and the best treatment time were 12, 12 and 24 h, respectively. The solubilizing ability of the three surfactants within the scope of each investigation factor was always SDBS > SDS > Tween80. Since non-ionic surfactants were more affected by soil adsorption, resulting in a lower effective concentration, the solubilization effects of the anionic surfactants selected in the study were better than those of non-ionic surfactants. (2) The compound of anionic-nonionic surfactants could reduce the repulsion between the same type of surfactants. The combination of SDS, SDBS and Tween80 had synergistic solubilization effect, and the more the proportion of SDS and SDBS in the system, the higher the elution rate of petroleum hydrocarbon. Because of the differences in structure and properties, the three surfactants showed different coordination for petroleum hydrocarbons. After compounding with the appropriate electrolyte promoter of Na2SiO3, the elution performance was enhanced, and the order was SDBS (97.56%) >SDS (97.24%) > Tween80 (92.71%),
Key words:  petroleum hydrocarbons contaminated soil  surfactant  combination  solubilization

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