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增效复合肥减氮施用对小麦-玉米产量和养分效率的影响
张富源,叶赟,王丽,朱荣,刘子君,穆静,齐永波,章力干
0
(安徽农业大学资源与环境学院,农田生态保育与污染防控安徽省重点实验室,合肥230036)
摘要:
为了探明增效复合肥减氮施用对小麦-玉米产量和养分效率的影响, 2017-2020年度在安徽省涡阳县布置不同增效复合肥及其减氮施用的田间试验。试验共设置9个处理,分别为不施肥(CK)、常规复合肥(CF)、腐殖酸复合肥(HF)、氨基酸复合肥(AF)、海藻酸复合肥(SF)、常规复合肥减氮20%(CR)、腐殖酸复合肥减氮20%(HR)、氨基酸复合肥减氮20%(AR)和海藻酸复合肥减氮20%(SR)。结果表明:不减氮处理小麦和玉米3年的平均产量高低顺序分别为AF > SF> HF > CF、SF > HF> AF> CF;减氮处理小麦和玉米3年的平均产量分别为AR > SR > HR > CR、HR > SR > AR > CR;周年平均产量SF > AF > HF > AR > SR > HR > CF > CR,增效复合肥减氮处理较增效复合肥不减氮处理周年产量下降6.37%,较CF处理周年产量增加3.51%,较CR处理周年产量增加10.40%。施用增效复合肥的处理小麦穗粒数较CF处理平均增加19.30%,施用增效复合肥的处理玉米穗粒数较CF处理平均增加5.80%,增效复合肥减氮处理较增效复合肥不减氮处理小麦、玉米穗粒数分别下降3.40%和2.60%。养分效率是衡量小麦、玉米吸收利用肥料效果的重要指标,小麦季增效复合肥不减氮的处理氮、磷和钾肥利用率较CF处理平均提高了10.32%,增效复合肥减氮处理与CR处理相比,氮、磷和钾肥吸收利用率平均提高了7.94%,增效复合肥处理小麦季平均肥料农学效率、偏生产力较CF处理分别提高了3.19和3.17 kg·kg-1,减氮20%后,施用3种增效复合肥的处理肥料农学效率、偏生产力较CR处理分别提高3.10和3.15 kg·kg-1;玉米季增效复合肥不减氮的处理氮、磷和钾肥吸收利用率较CF处理平均提高了7.35%,增效复合肥处理玉米季肥料的农学效率、偏生产力较CF处理分别提高了0.97和0.66 kg·kg-1,减氮20%后,施用3种增效复合肥的处理较CR处理氮、磷和钾肥吸收利用率分别提高了4.87%、4.71%和9.03%。综上,试验条件下增效复合肥较普通复合肥等养分条件下能显著提高小麦、玉米的产量和养分效率,增产主要体现在增加小麦和 玉米穗粒数;增效复合肥减氮施用条件下,小麦季较普通复合肥处理呈现增产,玉米季呈现减产,而周年产量表现为减肥稳产。
关键词:  冬小麦  夏玉米  增效复合肥  减氮施肥  产量  养分利用率
DOI:10.13610/j.cnki.1672-352x.20220705.008
投稿时间:2021-12-09
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0200402, 2018YFD0800301)资助。
Effects of synergistic compound fertilizer on wheat-maize yield and nutrient efficiency
ZHANG Fuyuan,YE Yun,WANG Li,ZHU Rong,LIU Zijun,MU Jing,QI Yongbo,ZHANG Ligan
(Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Farmland Ecological Conservation and Pollution Prevention, School of Resources and Environment, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036)
Abstract:
In order to provide a basis for rational application of synergistic compound fertilizer, the effects of nitrogen reduction application of synergistic compound fertilizer on wheat and maize yield and nutrient efficiency were explored through a field experiment of different synergistic compound fertilizers and nitrogen reduction application in Guoyang county, Anhui Province from 2017 to 2020. There were nine treatments in the experiment: No fertilizer (CK), conventional compound fertilizer (CF), humic acid compound fertilizer (HF), amino acid compound fertilizer (AF), alginate compound fertilizer (SF), conventional compound fertilizer 20% N reduction (CR), humic acid compound fertilizer 20% N reduction (HR), amino acid compound fertilizer 20% N reduction (AR) and alginate compound fertilizer 20% N reduction (SR).The results showed that the order of average yield of wheat and maize without N reduction was AF > SF > HF> CF, SF > HF > AF > CF, respectively. The average yield of wheat and maize treated with N reduction was AR > SR > HR > CR and HR > SR > AR > CR, respectively. The order of annual average yield was SF >
Key words:  winter wheat  summer maize  synergistic compound fertilizer  nitrogen reduction fertilization  production  nutrient availability

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