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合肥城市公园陆生植物物种的组成分析
柳小春,李国亮,潘铭心,綦顺英,张震
0
(安徽农业大学资源与环境学院,合肥 230036;蚌埠市圻润环境工程科技有限公司,蚌埠 233000)
摘要:
为了解合肥市公园植物群落物种组成现状,通过样方法对合肥市包河公园、银河公园、杏花公园和古逍遥津4个城市公园的园林陆生植物进行了植物多样性分析。研究结果表明:(1)合肥市城市公园中共有园林植物70科140属152种,其中蔷薇科、禾本科、菊科等在合肥市公园应用较多;在属的地理分布类型上,合肥市园林植物以温带地理分布为主,温带性分布77属,占总属数的55%。(2)乔、灌、草植物种类比约为1: 0.67:1.22。乔木层中常绿和落叶比约为1:1.75,灌木层中常绿和落叶比约为1: 0.68,草本层中一、二年生草本与多年生草本比为1: 2.05;乔木层优势种依次为棕榈(Trachycarpus fortunei )、香樟(Cinnamomum camphora )、女贞(Ligustrum lucidum)、桂花(Osmanthus fragrans)等,灌木层优势种为十大功劳(Mahonia fortunei)和锦绣杜鹃(Rhododendron pulchrum ),草本层优势种为沿阶草(Ophiopogon bodinieri)。(3)合肥市园林植物中共发现外来植物22科39属40种,入侵植物13科26属27种,其中入侵菊科植物最多(7种),其次为禾本科(5种)。(4)合肥市公园物种丰富度表现为草本层>乔木层>灌木层,Simpson多样性指数、Shannon-Wiener多样性指数和Pielou均匀度指数表现为乔木层>灌木层>草本层的分布规律。该研究可为合肥城市公园植物选择及群落结构优化提供理论依据。
关键词:  城市公园  植物多样性  区系分布  外来植物
DOI:10.13610/j.cnki.1672-352x.20220106.020
基金项目:国家自然科学基金 (31772235)和国家重点研发计划(2017YFD0200604)共同资助。
Analysis on species composition of terrestrial plants in Hefei city parks
LIU Xiaochun,LI Guoliang,PAN Mingxin,QI Shunying,ZHANG Zhen
(School of Resources and Environment, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036;Bengbu Qirun Environmental Engineering Technology Co. Ltd., Bengbu 233000)
Abstract:
In order to understand the status quo of plant community species composition in Hefei parks, the plant diversity of terrestrial plants in four urban parks, including Baohe Park, Yinhe Park, Xinghua Park and Guxiaoyaojin Park, was analyzed by sampling method. The results showed that: (1) There were 152 species, 140 genera and 70 families of garden plants, among which, Rosaceae, Gramineae, Compositae and so on were used more in Hefei parks. In terms of the geographical distribution type of the genus, the garden plants in Hefei were mainly distributed in the temperate zone with 77 genera, accounting for 55% of the total number of genera. (2) The species ratio of arbor, shrub and grass was about 1: 0.67:1.22. The ratio of evergreen to deciduous was 1:1.75 in the tree layer and 1:0.68 in the shrub layer, and the ratio of annual and biennial to perennial was 1:2.05 in the herb layer. The dominant species in the tree layer were Trachycarpus fortunei, Cinnamomum camphora, Ligustrum lucidum, Osmanthus fragrans, etc., and the dominant species in shrub layer were Mahonia fortunei and Rhododendron pulchrum, while the dominant species in herb layer was Ophiopogon bodinieri. (3) A total of 40 species of exotic plants were found in 39 genera, 22 families and 27 species of invasive plants were found in 26 genera,13 families, among which, the most invasive plants were Compositae (7 species), followed by Gramineae (5 species). (4) The species richness of Hefei park was herb layer>arbor layer>shrub layer, and the Simpson diversity index, Shannon-Wiener diversity index and Pielou evenness index were expressed as the tree layer>shrub layer>herb layer. This study can provide a theoretical basis for plant selection and community structure optimization in Hefei city parks.
Key words:  urban park  plant diversity  flora distribution  exotic plants

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