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药隔期低温胁迫对小麦干物质积累、转运和分配及产量的影响
柯媛媛,陈翔,张乐乐,张妍,许辉,MuhammadAhmadHassan,江港,林非非,魏凤珍,李金才
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(安徽农业大学农学院,农业农村部华东地区作物栽培科学观测站,合肥 230036; 江苏省现代作物生产协同创新中心,南京210095)
摘要:
为探明药隔期低温胁迫对小麦产量的影响,以烟农19、新麦26为供试材料,在小麦药隔期进行不同程度(T1: 2℃/4h、T2: 0℃/4h、T3: -2℃/4h)的低温处理,研究药隔期低温胁迫对小麦干物质积累、转运和分配及产量的影响。结果表明:药隔期低温胁迫显著降低小麦干物质积累量,不同抗倒春寒性小麦品种间干物质积累量存在差异,抗倒春寒性弱的小麦品种降幅更大。其中烟农19的T1、T2、T3处理分别降低33.4%、46.2%和54.7%,而新麦26则分别降低了50.1%、59.3%和72.4%。不同处理小麦籽粒、穗轴+颖壳、茎鞘+叶的干物质积累量均低于CK,且随着低温胁迫程度的加重呈明显降低趋势。小麦花前干物质的转运量、转运效率以及花前贮藏干物质对籽粒的贡献率均随着低温胁迫程度加重呈降低趋势。同时低温胁迫显著降低小麦籽粒和穗轴+颖壳的干物质分配比例,增加茎鞘+叶的分配比例。T1、T2和T3处理显著降低了小麦的穗粒数和千粒重及籽粒产量,烟农19的 T1、T2和T3处理分别减产56.06%、86.36%和98.10%;新麦26 的T1、T2和T3处理分别减产96.15%、98.07%和98.46%。药隔期低温胁迫显著降低小麦干物质的积累量、花前干物质的转运量、转运效率以及花前贮藏干物质对籽粒的贡献率和籽粒干物质分配比例,严重减少光合同化物向穗部的转运和分配,影响穗部小花的正常发育,从而导致穗粒数的减少,这是造成小麦减产的主要原因。
关键词:  小麦  药隔期  低温胁迫  干物质  产量
DOI:10.13610/j.cnki.1672-352x.20211105.010
基金项目:“十三五”国家重点研发计划课题(2017YFD0300408)和安徽省自然科学基金(2008085QC122)共同资助。
Effects of low temperature stress at anther connective stage on dry matter accumulation, translocation and distribution and grain yield of wheat
KE Yuanyuan,CHEN Xiang,ZHANG Lele,ZHANG Yan,XU Hui,Muhammad Ahmad Hassan,JIANG Gang,LIN Feifei,WEI Fengzhen,LI Jincai
(School of Agronomy, Anhui Agricultural University, East China Crop Cultivation Scientific Observation Station, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Hefei 230036; Collaborative Innovation Center of Modern Crop Production in Jiangsu Province, Nanjing 210095)
Abstract:
To quantify the impact of low-temperature stress on winter wheat productivity, two wheat cultivars Yannong-19 (YN-19, tolerant to cold stress) and Xinmai-26 (XM-26, sensitive to cold stress) at anther connective phase, were subjected to different temperature levels (T1: 2 ℃/4 h, T2: 0 ℃/4 h, T3: -2 ℃/4 h) with a constant duration of 4 hours in a controlled chamber. During the experiment, dry matter translocation, distribution, and accumulation were recorded and analyzed with respect to final grain yield. Analysis results undoubtedly illustrated that wheat exposure to cold stress at the critical anther connective stage cause a severe reduction in dry matter accumulation, consequently decreased the final wheat yield. A significant difference in dry matter accumulation has been observed within two cultivars as one is prone and the other tolerant to cold stress. As results of T1, T2 and T3, YN-19 showed 33.4%, 46.2%, and 54.7% reduction in dry matter, while in XM-26 it declined by 50.1%, 59.3%, and 72.4%, respectively. Additionally, dry matter accumulation and distribution substantially reduced under cold stress. Thus, dry matter proportion in grains, rachis + glume, stem sheath, and leaves decreased significantly in all treatments compared to control (CK). Similarly, agronomic traits like the number of grains per spike, 1000-grain weight, and final
Key words:  wheat  anther connective stage  low temperature stress  dry matter  grain yield

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