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镉胁迫对10种鸢尾属植物生长及镉积累特征的影响
杨义,王子纯,王冬良
0
(安徽农业大学园艺学院,合肥 230036)
摘要:
为研究鸢尾属植物对镉吸收特征的差异及鸢尾植物超微结构在镉胁迫下的变化,进行了10个鸢尾品种的盆栽试验研究,并分析了不同品种鸢尾在镉含量20 mg.kg-1下镉积累差异及4个品种鸢尾超微结构情况。结果表明:(1)玉蝉花(Iris ensata Thunb.)的根系镉富集系数和植株镉积累总量最高,分别为1.02 μg·μg-1和60.6 μg。镉胁迫对株高、叶宽和叶片数有轻微抑制作用,而对地上及根系物质量有较强的抑制作用。其中,地上部鲜重和生物量的减少率分别为20.14%和15.60%,根系鲜重和生物量的减少率分别为12.54%和7.67%,由于物质量受镉胁迫影响较小,故适用于镉污染地区的修复植物。(2)蝴蝶花(Iris tectorum)根系富集系数和镉积累总量均较高,分别为0.14 μg·μg-1和19.01 μg;其叶宽和株高分别增加了2.47%和5.84%,其生长受到一定的促进作用,表明其具有很强的镉适应性,可用于作为镉污染地区的替代种植植物。(3)黄菖蒲(Iris pseudacorus)、守夜者(Iris night ruler)和胜利者(Iris nelson)镉积累总量较低,分别为17.62、15.90 和11.80 μg,同时生长受到的影响较小,可用于镉污染地区的园林植物种植。(4)其他品种镉积累量极低,生长受到的抑制作用大,不适宜在镉污染地区种植。(5)镉胁迫可导致鸢尾属植物细胞变形、质壁分离,线粒体结构破碎、溶解,叶绿体肿胀、片层结构紊乱或溶解,而细胞核形态变化不明显。研究结果为鸢尾属植物改良重金属土壤提供了科学依据,同时为重金属污染地区的园林应用提供参考。
关键词:  鸢尾  镉积累量  富集系数  超微结构
DOI:10.13610/j.cnki.1672-352x.20210909.004
投稿时间:2020-08-02
基金项目:阜阳国家农业科技园区创新能力项目资助。
Effects of cadmium stress on growth and cadmium accumulation of 10 varieties of Iris plants
YANG Yi,WANG Zichun,WANG Dongliang
(School of Horticulture, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036)
Abstract:
To study the differences in Iris plants uptake cadmium and the changes in the ultrastructure of Iris plants under cadmium stress, the pot experiments of 10 Iris varieties were carried out in this paper. The differences in cadmium accumulation and the ultrastructure of four Iris varieties under the cadmium content of 20 mg.kg-1 were analyzed. The results showed that: (1) The Iris ensata Thunb. had the highest enrichment coefficients of Cd in the root and presented the highest accumulation in the total plant, which were 1.02 μg·μg-1 and 60.6 μg, respectively. Cd stress had no significant inhibitory effect on plant height, leaf width, and leaf amounts, but it obviously inhibited the mass of aboveground (the reduction rates of fresh weight and biomass were 20.14% and 15.60%, respectively) and underground materials (the reduction rates fresh weight and biomass were 12.54% and 7.67%, respectively). Since the biomass of Iris ensata Thunb. was less affected by Cd stress, it was suitable for restoration plants in Cd polluted areas. (2) The root enrichment coefficient of Iris tectorum and the total accumulation of Cd were both higher, which were 0.14 μg·μg-1 and 19.01 μg, respectively, but its leaf width and plant height increased by 2.47% and 5.84%, respectively, and the growth of Iris tectorum was promoted to a certain extent, which indicated that it has strong Cd adaptability and can be used as an alternative growing plant in cadmium polluted areas. (3) The total accumulation of Cd in Iris pseudacorus, Iris night ruler and Iris nelson was lower, of 17.62, 15.90 and 11.80 μg, respectively. Besides, the growth process was less affected and could be used for garden plants in Cd-contaminated areas. (4) The Cd accumulation in other varieties was extremely low, and the growth was greatly inhibited. Hence, they were not suitable for planting in cadmium polluted areas. (5) Cd stress could cause cell deformation, plasmolysis, mitochondrial structure
Key words:  Iris  cadmium accumulation  enrichment coefficient  ultrastructure

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