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长江近口靖江段近岸鱼类群落多样性
朱宗波,王银平,蔺丹清,刘思磊,李佩杰,刘凯
0
(水产科学国家级实验教学示范中心(上海海洋大学),上海 201306; 农业农村部长江下游渔业资源环境科学观测实验站,中国水产科学研究院淡水渔业研究中心,无锡 214081)
摘要:
为掌握长江近口靖江段鱼类群落特征及多样性水平,于2017年在该江段布设4个调查样点,进行4个频次的鱼类周年调查。结果显示:共采集鱼类71种,隶属于10目20科53属,群落结构以小型鱼类(42种,59.15%)占优,优势类群依次为淡水定居性鱼类(物种数占比为71.83%)、杂食性鱼类(占比为49.30%)和底层鱼类(占比为42.25%)。春夏季、秋冬季鱼类群落结构相似性较高,春夏季的物种数、渔获尾数和生物量均高于秋冬季;各样点鱼类群落结构相似性则较低,4号样点的渔获尾数和生物量均高于其他样点。分析表明:水温和生境特征分别是影响长江靖江段鱼类群落多样性季节差异及空间差异的主要因素;长江靖江段鱼类资源丰富,群落多样性较高,但群落结构呈现小型化特征。
关键词:  长江近口段  生态类群  群落多样性  小型化
DOI:10.13610/j.cnki.1672-352x.20210909.003
基金项目:农业财政专项(CJDC-2017-22), 农业农村部物种资源保护项目(17200360)和三峡工程运行安全综合监测系统水生生物与渔业资源监测站(下游站)(2019-10-160)共同资助。
Species diversity of fish in Jingjiang section near the coast of the Yangtze River estuary
ZHU Zongbo,WANG Yinping,LIN Danqing,LIU Silei,LI Peijie,LIU Kai
(National Experimental Teaching and Demonstration Center for Aquatic Science (Shanghai Ocean University),Shanghai 201306; Scientific?Observing?and?Experimental?Station of?Fishery?Resources?and?Environment?in?the Lower Reaches of the Changjiang River, Ministry of Agriculture?and?Rural?Affairs,Freshwater?Fisheries?Research?Center,?Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Wuxi 214081)
Abstract:
In order to study the characteristics and diversity level of the fish community in Jingjiang section near the coast of the Yangtse river estuary, fish community was surveyed quarterly in year 2017. 71 fish species, which belong to 10 orders, 20 families and 53 genera, were collected. Small fishes (42 species, 59.15%) were the dominant species. For ecological species, sedentary fish, omnivore fish and demersal fish were the main species, which account for 71.83%,49.30% and 42.25% of the whole fish community, respectively. According to Jaccard’s similarity index, fish community structure in spring and summer was similar to autumn and winter. Quantity and biomass were higher in spring-summer than that in autumn-winter. No significant difference were found in community structure similarity among sampling sites, the biomass and quantity of fish in site 4 were higher than those of the other sites. Water temperature and habitat characteristics are the main factors that influence fish diversity in the Jingjiang section of Yangtze River respectively. Fish resources are abundant in the Jingjiang section of Yangtze River, the community diversity is high, but the fish is miniaturized.
Key words:  the coast of the Yangtze River estuary  ecological groups  community diversity  miniaturized

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