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鸡粪堆肥中优势菌及复合固化菌剂载体的筛选
邵颖,郑倩倩,赵鑫铭,宋祥军,涂健,祁克宗
0
(安徽农业大学动物科技学院,兽医病理生物学与疫病防控安徽省重点实验室,安徽省动物性食品质量与生物安全工程实验室,合肥 230036)
摘要:
为了提高畜禽粪便堆肥降解效率和堆肥质量,比较不同堆肥时期微生物菌群结构和多样性。基于高通量测序分析堆肥前、中和腐熟时期样品的优势细菌,通过检测油脂、淀粉、纤维素、明胶分解性能和生理生化特性,筛选堆肥中的优势菌株,并优化优势菌株的培养条件和筛选最佳的菌剂载体。结果表明:芽孢杆菌是堆肥过程中的优势菌,成功筛选出具有堆肥微生态菌剂优势的3株芽孢杆菌,分别是D1解淀粉芽孢杆菌(Bacillus amyloliquefaciens)、D5苏云金芽孢杆菌(Bacillus thuringiensis)和D7地衣芽孢杆菌(Bacillus licheniformis);3株菌在环境温度为41 ℃时,pH为6.5~7.5,以酵母提取物为3株菌氮源时,酶活性最高,各菌同组产酶差异显著(P<0.05);以玉米芯粉为载体更能有效保护菌株活性。筛选优质高效的微生物和制备固体堆肥复合菌剂,有利于揭示堆肥过程中微生物作用的本质规律,为加速畜禽排泄物资源化提供有效途径。
关键词:  养殖污染  芽孢杆菌  鸡粪复合堆肥菌剂  菌剂固化技术
DOI:10.13610/j.cnki.1672-352x.20210909.014
投稿时间:2020-03-17
基金项目:安徽省高校协同创新项目(GXXT-2019-035)资助。
Screening of dominant bacteria and compound solidifying bacteria carrier in chicken manure composting
SHAO Ying,ZHENG Qianqian,ZHAO Xinming,SONG Xiangjun,TU Jian,QI Kezong
(Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Veterinary Pathobiology and Disease Control, Anhui Province Engineering Laboratory for Animal Food Quality and Bio-safety, School of Animal Science and Technology, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036)
Abstract:
In order to improve the degradation efficiency and composting quality of livestock and poultry manure, the structure and diversity of microbial communities were compared in different composting periods. This study analyzed the dominant bacteria in the samples before composting during the neutralization and decomposing period based on high-throughput sequencing. The dominant strains in the compost were screened by detecting the decomposition performance and physiological and biochemical characteristics of oil, starch, cellulose and gelatin. Then the culture conditions of the dominant strains were optimized and the optimal bactericidal carrier was screened. The results showed that Bacillus was the dominant bacteria in the process of composting. Three strains of Bacillus were successfully screened out, which were Bacillus amyloliquefaciens D1, Bacillus thuringiensis D5 and Bacillus licheniformis. When the ambient temperature at 41℃, pH between 6.5-7.5, and yeast extract used as the nitrogen source, the enzyme activity was the highest and significant difference in enzyme production among the three strains (P<0.05).What’s more, corn cob powder was used as carrier to protect the strain activity more effectively. The screening of high quality and efficient microorganisms and the preparation of solid compost compound bacteria are beneficial to reveal the essential rules of microbial action in the process of composting and provide an effective way to accelerate the resource utilization of livestock and poultry excreta.
Key words:  culture pollution  Bacillus  chicken manure compost  curing technology

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