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苹果园间伐对叶片光合特性和果实产量、品质影响的整合分析
张俊娜,王冲,张东,杨晨
0
(中国农业大学资源与环境学院,北京100193)
摘要:
为探明果园间伐对果树光合特性及产量、品质的影响,搜集近20年(2000 — 2020年)来发表的文献,建立了包含130组光合特性和产量、品质等相关内容的数据库,采用整合分析方法,定量分析了产区、间伐类型、树龄以及种植密度等条件下间伐对果树叶片光合特性和苹果产量、品质的影响。结果表明,苹果园间伐可以改善果树冠下透光率,显著提高叶片净光合速率(Pn)、气孔导度(Gs)和蒸腾速率(Tr),促进果实单果重、可溶性固形物含量、硬度和着色指数的显著提升。在不同产区、密度、树龄和间伐类型条件下,叶片净光合速率、气孔导度和蒸腾速率增幅范围分别为25.9% ~ 55.1%、42.0% ~ 80.7%、19.3% ~ 45.0%,叶片胞间CO2(Ci)浓度在树龄≤15年时降低1.9%,树龄>15年时显著增加11.9%;果实单果重、可溶性固形物含量、硬度及着色指数增幅范围分别为10.6% ~ 24.6%、9.2% ~ 16.4%、5.6% ~ 16.4%和7.5% ~ 32.6%,其中单果重效应值在不同产区和树龄的影响下均有显著差异;与不间伐(CK)相比,果园间伐后第1年苹果产量显著降低18.6%,3年或者3年以上时,产量显著增加,达 18.9%。郁闭苹果园间伐能够改善果园的通风透光性,提高果树光合特性,进而促进苹果产量和品质的提高,但因产区、间伐类型、树龄和密度等影响幅度不同。因此,果园间伐时应综合考虑不同区域和果园条件,进而合理采取间伐措施。
关键词:  苹果  郁闭园改造  meta分析  透光率  光合特性
DOI:10.13610/j.cnki.1672-352x.20210909.001
投稿时间:2020-10-12
基金项目:国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0201100)资助。
A meta-analysis of effects of thinning on leaf photosynthetic characteristics and fruit yield and quality in apple orchard
ZHANG Junna,WANG Chong,ZHANG Dong,YANG Chen
(College of Resources and Environment, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193)
Abstract:
To explore the effects of thinning of orchards on the photosynthetic characteristics and apple yield and quality, we collected data from published literature in the last 20 years (2000—2020), established a database containing 130 groups of photosynthetic characteristics, yield and quality and other related content, and used a meta-analysis to quantify the effect of thinning on leaf photosynthetic characteristics and apple yield and quality under different production areas, thinning methods, tree-age and planting density. As results, thinning in apple orchards could increase the light transmittance under the canopy of fruit trees, significantly increased the leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs) and transpiration rate (Tr), and significantly promoted the single fruit mass, soluble solids, fruit firmness and coloring index. Under different production areas, densities, tree ages and thinning types, the increase range of the leaf Pn, Gs and Tr was 25.9% - 55.1%, 42.0% - 80.7% and 19.3% - 45.0%, respectively. The Ci was significantly reduced by 1.9% when the tree-age was ≤15 a, and it was significantly increased by 11.9% when the tree-age was >15 a; the increase range of single fruit mass, soluble solids, fruit firmness and color index was 10.6% - 24.6%, 9.2% - 16.4%, 5.6% -16.4% and 7.5% - 32.6%, respectively, of which, the single fruit mass was significantly different under the influence of different producing areas and tree ages; compared with no thinning(CK), the apple yield in the first year after thinning in the orchard was significant decreased by 18.6%, and in the third year or more, the output would increase significantly by 18.9%. In conclusion, canopy overcrowd apple orchards thinning can improve the ventilation and light transmittance of the orchard, improve the photosynthetic characteristics of fruit trees,
Key words:  apple  canopy reconstruction  meta-analysis  light transmittance  photosynthetic characteristics

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