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60Co-γ辐射对广适性水稻品种绥粳18的诱变影响
刘宝海,刘晴,聂守军,刘宝民,付立新,王明泉,高世伟,刘宇强,常汇琳,张佳柠,马成,薛英会,白瑞,王洪彬,唐铭,门龙南
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(黑龙江省农业科学院绥化分院,绥化 152052;黑龙江省农业科学院玉米研究所,哈尔滨 150086;黑龙江八一农垦大学农学院,大庆 163319)
摘要:
为加快选育出能够替代或超越广适性水稻绥粳18的新品种,探索完善寒地水稻60Co-γ射线辐射育种途径,采用220 Gy、250 Gy和280 Gy3个剂量辐射绥粳18水稻种子方法,对辐射后种子活力、出苗及M1群体主要农艺性状遗传变异规律等进行统计分析。结果表明,在0~280 Gy 60Co-γ辐射剂量范围内,绥粳18水稻种子辐射后15 d为最佳苗床播种时期,根活力指数和芽长是限制种子苗床出苗的主要因子,M1群体主要农艺性状变异幅度大,高剂量对成熟期延长、分蘖数增加有显著促进作用,对株高、穗实粒数和结实率有显著抑制作用。M1群体农艺性状权重值大小依次为:穗实粒数(0.528 01)>结实率(0.352 72)>分蘖数(0.113 87)株高>(0.004 62)>成熟期(0.000 77)>千粒重(0.000 01)。明确今后辐射世代育种要注重早熟、强分蘖力、较高植株、多穗实粒数、高结实率等遗传变异性状材料的选择。本研究为开展替代或超越广适性水稻品种绥粳18的新种质创新,以及寒地水稻辐射育种可能有效途径探索,提供了一定的种质基础和技术参考。
关键词:  60Co-γ;辐射  水稻;绥粳18;诱变
DOI:10.13610/j.cnki.1672-352x.20210909.020
基金项目:黑龙江省农业科学院科研项目(2019CGJL003), 黑龙江省“百千万”工程生物育种重大科技专项(2020ZX16B01)和黑龙江省农业科学院“农业科技创新跨越工程”专项(HNK2019CX02)共同资助。
Mutagenic effect of 60Co-γ on radiation widely-adapted rice variety Suijing18
LIU Baohai,LIU Qing,NIE Shoujun,LIU Baomin,FU Lixin,WANG Mingquang,GAO Shiwei,LIU Yuqiang,CHANG Huilin,ZHANG Jianing,MA Cheng,XUE Yinghui,BAI Rui,WANG Hongbin,TANG Ming,MEN Longnan
(Suihua Branch of the Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Suihua 152052;Institute of Maize Research, Heilongjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Haerbin 150086;College of Agronomy, Heilongjiang Bayi Agricultural University, Daqing 163319)
Abstract:
To accelerate the breeding of new varieties which can replace or surpass the wide adaptability of rice Suijing18, and to explore ways of improve 60Co-γ ray radiation breeding of rice in cold region, seeds of Suijing18 were irradiated by 220 Gy, 250 Gy and 280 Gy doses, seed vigor, emergence and genetic variation of main agronomic traits of M1 population were analysed after radiation. The result showed that: at the range of 0~280 Gy 60Co-γ radiation dose, seeds of Suijing18 were irradiated and 15 days after irradiation was the best sowing time, the root vigor index and shoot length were the main factors limiting seeds emergence, the variation of main agronomic characters of M1 population was large, high dose significantly promoted the extension of maturity and the increase of tiller number, high dose significantly inhibited plant height, full grain number per panicle and seed setting rate. Weighted value of agronomic characters of M1 population was in turn: full grain number per panicle (0.528 01)>seed setting rate (0.352 72)>tiller number (0.113 87)>plant height (0.004 62)>maturity (0.000 77)>1 000 grain weight (0.000 01). The selection of genetic variation characters such as early maturing, strong tillering ability, high plant, multi-full grain number per panicle and high seed setting rate should be emphasized in future radiation generation breeding. The results of this study provided a certain germplasm basis and technical reference for the development of new germplasm innovation to replace or surpass Suijing 18 and the possible effective ways of rice radiation breeding in cold region.
Key words:  60Co-γ  radiation  rice  Suijing18  mutagenic

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