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复合潜流人工湿地对农村生活污水的净化效果 及其微生物群落结构特征
王皓,钱琪卉,丁瑞睿,钟耀华,周春晓,王振,巫厚长
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(农田生态保育与污染防控安徽省重点实验室,安徽农业大学资源与环境学院,合肥 230036;金寨县茶谷和美好乡村建设服务中心,金寨 237300;合肥市第三十二中学,合肥 230051)
摘要:
试验探究了复合潜流人工湿地对农村生活污水的净化效果及其微生物群落结构特征。结果表明,当水力负荷为0.35 m3·(m2·d)-1时,系统对TN、NH4+-N、COD和TP去除效率分别为(89.84±7.64)%、(98.67±1.31)%、(61.63±16.01)%和(70.21±8.00)%。湿地中一共发现11个主要菌门、18个主要菌纲和33个主要菌属,变形菌门(Proteobacteria)、蓝藻门(Cyanobacteria)、拟杆菌门(Bacteroidetes)、厚壁菌门(Firmicutes)、绿弯菌门(Chloroflexi)、酸杆菌门(Acidobacteria)、放线菌门(Actinobacteria)是其中的优势菌门,它们在各级湿地中表层和底层的相对丰度分别是57.26%、61.37%、91.60%、93.22%、88.78%、88.02%。蓝藻菌纲(Cyanobacteria)、α-变形菌纲(Alphaproteobacteria) 、芽孢杆菌纲(Bacilli)和γ-变形菌纲(Gammaproteobacteria)、β-变形菌纲(Betaproteobacteria)是其中优势菌纲,约占主要菌纲的70%。共有17个优势菌属,在各级湿地中的分布情况不同,其中芽孢杆菌属(Bacillus)相对丰度最高,集中分布于第三级湿地,其次是Leptolyngbya、席藻属(Phormidium),在第一、二级湿地中广泛分布。复合潜流人工湿地具有良好污水净化效果,系统中有机物和氮素的去除主要依靠微生物作用,磷素的去除主要依靠基质吸附沉淀作用。
关键词:  复合潜流人工湿地  农村生活污水  去除率  微生物群落结构
DOI:10.13610/j.cnki.1672-352x.20210112.006
基金项目:安徽省高等学校省级质量工程教学研究项目 (2018jyxm0938), 安徽农业大学-金寨县人民政府现代农业产学研联盟专项基金(金政秘[2014]47号)共同资助。
Performances of a hybrid horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetland system treating on rural domestic sewage and its microbial community structure characteristics
WANG Hao,QIAN Qihui,DING Ruirui,ZHONG Yaohua,ZHOU Chunxiao,WANG Zhen,WU Houzhang
(Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Farmland Ecological Conservation and Pollution Prevention, School of Resources and Environment, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036;Tea Valley and Beautiful Rural Consruction Servive Center in Jinzhai County, Jinzhai 237300;The Thirty-second High School of Hefei City, Hefei 230051)
Abstract:
This study was conducted to explore the performances of a hybrid horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetland system treating rural domestic sewage and its microbial community structure characteristics. The results showed that when the hydraulic load was 0.35 m3·(m2·d) -1, the removal efficiencies of the system for TN, NH4+-N, COD and TP were (89.84±7.64)%, (98.67±1.31)%, (61.63±16.01)% and (70.21±8.00)%, respectively. A total of 11 major phylum, 18 main class, and 33 main genus were found in the wetland. Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, and Actinobacteria were the dominant phylum. The relative abundances of them in combined surface and bottom layers of wetland were 57.26%, 61.37%, 91.60%, 93.22%, 88.78%, 88.02%, respectively. Cyanobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Bacilli, Gammaproteobacteria, and Betaproteobacteria were the dominant class, which account for approximately 70% of the main class. There were 17 dominant genera and the distribution in wetland system was different. Among them, Bacillus was the most abundant, and it was concentrated in the tertiary wetlands, followed by Leptolyngbya and Phormidium, which were widely distributed in the first and second wetlands. The composite submarine constructed wetland has a good sewage purification
Key words:  hybrid horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands  rural domestic sewage  the removal rate  microbial community structure

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