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减量配施新型基质缓释肥对水稻产量及氮肥利用率的影响
杨阳,刘灿华,葛树春,李广斌,董守兵,冯梦喜,钟雯瑾,倪晓宇,刘斌美,林先贵,吴跃进
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(中国科学院合肥物质科学研究院,合肥 230031;河南省土壤肥料站,郑州 450003;河南省信阳市平桥区农业技术推广站,信阳 464100;河南心连心化学工业集团股份有限公司,新乡 453731;中国科学院南京土壤研究所,南京 210008)
摘要:
为探究减量配施新型基质缓释肥对水稻(Oryza sativa L.)的影响,通过两年田间试验研究了水稻籽粒产量及氮肥利用率的响应。两年平均结果显示,与全量施用普通肥(180 kg·hm-2)相比:全量施用缓释肥水稻增产13.4% (P < 0.05),植株氮吸收量提高9.1% (P < 0.05),氮肥农学效率提高50.4% (P < 0.05),氮肥表观利用率提高37.8% (P > 0.05);减量10%施用缓释肥水稻增产9.6% (P < 0.05),植株氮吸收量提高3.3% (P > 0.05),氮肥农学效率提高51.1% (P < 0.05),氮肥表观利用率提高26.6% (P > 0.05);而在减量10%施用缓释肥的同时以有机肥代替部分化肥,水稻增产11.1%(P < 0.05),植株氮吸收量提高7.3% (P > 0.05),氮肥农学效率提高57.6% (P < 0.05),氮肥表观利用率提高44.8% (P < 0.05)。缓释肥处理促进水稻增产增效的原因是其叶面积指数、叶绿素含量、净光合速率、硝酸还原酶和谷氨酰胺合成酶活性较高。综上,基质缓释肥减量10%施用(尤其在配施有机肥条件下)可维持较高的水稻产量和氮肥利用率,在水稻生产中具有应用前景。
关键词:  水稻  施肥量  光合  氮肥利用率  新型肥料
DOI:10.13610/j.cnki.1672-352x.20200707.001
基金项目:国家重点研发计划(2017YFD0301302), 国家自然科学基金项目(31601828), 中国科学院科技服务网络计划(STS)项目(KFJ-STS-QYZD-008; KFJ-STS-ZDTP-054)和安徽省科技重大专项(18030701205)共同资助。
Effects of reduced application of novel matrix-based slow-release fertilizer on rice grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency
YANG Yang,LIU Canhua,GE Shuchun,LI Guangbin,DONG Shoubing,FENG Mengxi,ZHONG Wenjin,NI Xiaoyu,LIU Binmei,LIN Xiangui,WU Yuejin
(Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031;Henan Soil and Fertilizer Station, Zhengzhou 450003;Pingqiao Agricultural Technology Extension Station, Xinyang 464100;Henan Xinlianxin Chemical Industry Group Co., Ltd., Xinxiang 453731;Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008)
Abstract:
In order to elucidate the effects of reduced application of novel matrix-based slow-release fertilizer on rice (Oryza sativa L.), a two-year field experiment was conducted to determine the responses of rice grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency. The means from the two-year experiment showed that compared with 100%RF treatment (full application of regular fertilizer, 180 kg N·hm-2), 100%SF treatment (full application of slow-release fertilizer) increased rice grain yield by 13.4% (P < 0.05), plant N uptake by 9.1% (P < 0.05), agronomical efficiency by 50.4% (P < 0.05), and recovery efficiency by 37.8% (P > 0.05); 90%SF treatment (reduced application of slow-release fertilizer) increased rice grain yield by 9.6% (P < 0.05), plant N uptake by 3.3% (P > 0.05), agronomical efficiency by 51.1% (P < 0.05), and recovery efficiency by 26.6% (P > 0.05); while 90%SF+OF treatment (added organic fertilizer) increased rice grain yield by 11.1% (P < 0.05), plant N uptake by 7.3% (P > 0.05), agronomical efficiency by 57.6% (P < 0.05), and recovery efficiency by 44.8% (P < 0.05). In all the slow-release fertilizer treatments, the greater rice grain yield was largely due to higher leaf area index, chlorophyll concentration, net photosynthetic rate, nitrate reductase, and glutamine synthetase activity. Overall, matrix-based slow-release fertilizer can increase rice grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency, even if its application rate was reduced to 90% of full application rate (especially added
Key words:  Oryza sativa  fertilizer application rate  photosynthesis  nitrogen use efficiency  novel fertilizer

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