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7个茶树品种的花粉形态与生活力研究
郭锐,密孝增,王华斌,夏小波,刘露,刘升锐,韦朝领
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(安徽农业大学茶树生物学与资源利用国家重点实验室,合肥 230036;安徽农业大学农业园管理中心,合肥230036)
摘要:
为研究不同茶树品种之间花粉的形态特征与生活力变化,以7个茶树品种为试材,进行花粉形态结构观察及其随培养时间增长萌发率的变化趋势研究。结果表明:(1)7个茶树品种花粉均呈左右对称,具有3个萌发沟,长度和宽度差异不显著,萌发沟长度、宽度以及延伸比例呈现多样性,赤道面观呈椭圆形和棱锥形,极面观呈圆形和近三角形;外壁呈现光滑瘤状和粗糙瘤状,且部分品种花粉表面有穿孔。(2)在24 h的培养时间内,7个茶树品种的花粉萌发率均呈“S”型曲线增长,且基本上在1、3和5 h呈现显著性差异增长,到7 h接近萌发峰值。其中,柿大茶黄种、龙井43、福鼎大白茶的花粉萌发率较高,而云抗10号的花粉萌发率均显著低于其他6个品种。对中国种舒茶早(Camellia sinensis var. sinensis ‘Shuchazao’)与阿萨姆种云抗10号(Camellia sinensis var. assamica ‘Yunkang 10’)的花粉在不同贮藏条件下的生活力进行进一步的比较,发现它们在4℃和-20℃温度下的生活力存在显著差异,在180 d的贮藏时间内,舒茶早与云抗10号分别在-80℃与-20℃的贮藏温度下对其花粉活力的保存更适宜。
关键词:  茶树  花粉形态  生活力  贮藏温度
DOI:10.13610/j.cnki.1672-352x.20200706.021
基金项目:安徽省创新型省份建设专项资金(15czs08032, 2060402)资助。
Identification of morphology and viability of pollen from seven tea cultivars
GUO Rui,MI Xiaozeng,WANG Huabin,XIA Xiaobo,LIU Lu,LIU Shengrui,WEI Chaoling
(State Key Laboratory of Tea Plant Biology and Utilization, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036;Agricultural?Park?Management?Center,?Anhui?Agricultural?University, Hefei 230036)
Abstract:
In order to study the morphological characteristics and pollen viability among different tea cultivars, we picked pollens from seven tea cultivars for the detection, including the observation of the pollen morphology and the variation trend of pollen germination. The results showed that: (1) The pollens of all the seven tea cultivars were bilaterally symmetric along with three germination grooves which possessed diversity of the length and extension ratio, while no significant difference could be observed in the length and width among them. Their equatorial planes were elliptical and pyramidal, and the polar views were round and nearly triangular; the outer walls of pollens were smooth and rough, however, some tea cultivars possessed perforations on the surface of their pollens. (2) Within 24 h of culture time, the pollen germination rates of all the seven tea cultivars presented "S" curves of the growth trend, demonstrating significant differences of their growth rates at 1, 3 and 5 h time points, and they all reached the germination peak values at 7 h time point. Among them, the pollen germination rates of ‘Shidacha huangzhong’, ‘Longjing 43’ and ‘Fudingdabaicha’ were relatively higher, while the pollen germination rate of ‘Yunkang 10’ was significantly lower than that of the other six tea cultivars. We further compared the pollen viability between Camellia sinensis var. sinensis ‘Shuchazao’ and Camellia sinensis var. assamica ‘Yunkang 10’ under different conditions, and the results demonstrated that there was a significant difference between them under 4℃ and-20℃. During the storage period of 180 days, ‘Shuchazao’ and ‘Yunkang 10’ were more suitable for their pollen storage under-80℃ and -20℃, respectively.
Key words:  tea plant  pollen morphology  viability  storage temperature

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