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黄淮海夏玉米花期高温发生特点、危害机理与防控措施综述
陈翔,鲍杨俊,李庆,丁井魁,杨明珠,王冬阳,曹祖航,贺亮,宋有洪
0
(安徽农业大学农学院,合肥 230036;安徽农业大学资源与环境学院,合肥 230036)
摘要:
近年来黄淮海平原夏玉米区花期高温频发,常引起玉米花粒现象,严重影响夏玉米籽粒产量和品质。花期高温已成为影响该地区玉米丰产稳产的主要限制因素之一。基于当前研究现状,综述近年来黄淮海地区玉米季气候变化规律及高温热害发生特点;基于源库理论与产量形成特点,进一步分析玉米花期高温危害特点及其影响机理。还从品种选择、种植方式、耕作方式与水肥管理等方面综述当前高温热害的栽培技术防控措施。玉米花期高温发生常伴有干旱特点,加大了危害程度与危害机理研究难度,从而影响对玉米花期高温的有效防控。因此花期高温与干旱叠加危害机理及其防控措施研究将是未来黄淮海地区玉米丰产、稳产的研究重点。
关键词:  玉米  花期高温  危害机理  栽培防控
DOI:10.13610/j.cnki.1672-352x.20200518.023
基金项目:“十三五”国家重点研发课题 (2017YFD0301307)资助。
Review on characteristics of high temperature and its damage, and prevention measures of summer maize in Huang-Huai-Hai area
CHEN Xiang,BAO Yangjun,LI Qing,DING Jingkui,YANG Mingzhu,WANG Dongyang,CAO Zuhang,HE Liang,SONG Youhong
(School of Agronomy, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036;School of Resources and Environments, AAU, Hefei 230036)
Abstract:
In recent years, high temperature occurs frequently during maize flowering in Huang-Huai-Hai area, which often causes the failure of kernel setting and thus affects maize grain yield and quality. High temperature stress during flowering has become one of the main limiting factors affecting the high and stable yield of maize. Based on current research progress, the climate change and characteristics of high temperature stress in recent years in Huang-Huai-Hai region were summarized. Based on the theory of source-sink relationship and the yield formation, the damage mechanism of high temperature stress during the flowering stage of maize were further analyzed. We also presented the cultivation measures of prevention and controlling high temperature stress from the aspects of variety selection, planting method, cultivation and water and fertilizer management. It was notable that high temperature stress at flowering stage is often accompanied by drought stress, which made it more difficult to comprehend the damage characteristics and mechanism, thus affecting the effective prevention and control of high temperature stress. Therefore, this paper pointed out that the mechanism of superimposed damage of high temperature and drought stress at flowering stage and its prevention and control measures will be the focus of future research on maize high and stable yield in Huang-Huai-Hai region.
Key words:  zea mays  flowering heat stress  damage mechanism  prevention and control of cultivation

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