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生境变化对升金湖越冬水鸟群落时空动态的影响
宋昀微,周立志
0
(安徽大学资源与环境工程学院,合肥 230601; 安徽升金湖国家级自然保护区管理局,池州 247230;安徽大学资源与环境工程学院,合肥 230601; 湿地生态保护与修复安徽省重点实验室(安徽大学),合肥 230601)
摘要:
湖泊适宜生境对于越冬水鸟群落结构的维持具有重要意义,觅食生境改变影响水鸟取食集团的组成,进而影响水鸟群落结构的稳定。对比2004与2015年2个越冬季升金湖水鸟群落结构以及湿地景观变化,分析了湖泊湿地变化对水鸟群落结构的影响。在2004与2015年两个越冬季,分别记录到水鸟7目12科41种33 775只和7目12科44种38 794只。越冬水鸟种类和总数量有所增加,虽然优势种群仍为雁鸭类,但豆雁和白额雁取代了小天鹅、鸿雁和针尾鸭成为优势物种,前2种主要分布地点有赤岸、三千亩、小西湖等地,后3种主要分布在杨峨头、白联圩、舍干、三千亩、沙山等地。沉水植被的退化可能是导致小天鹅、针尾鸭等浅水取食集团和鸿雁等挖掘集团水鸟数量锐减的主要原因,广阔苔草滩的形成使得啄取集团如豆雁、白额雁和小白额雁等草食性雁类数量明显增加;湖区大面积渔塘转变为水稻田,使部分鸭类丧失了适宜的觅食地,但为白头鹤、豆雁、白额雁等水鸟提供了替代生境。实施植被恢复和加强退化湖泊的生境恢复是维持越冬水鸟群落结构稳定的有效途径。
关键词:  越冬水鸟  群落结构  取食集团  栖息地利用  升金湖
DOI:10.13610/j.cnki.1672-352x.20191013.016
基金项目:国家自然科学基金资助项目(31472020)资助。
Effects of habitat changes on spatio-temporal pattern of the wintering waterbrid community at Shengjin Lake
SONG Yunwei,ZHOU Lizhi
(School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230601; Buearu of Anhui Shengjin Lake National Nature Reserve, Chizhou 247230;School of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei 230601; Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Wetland Ecosystem Protection and Restoration(Anhui University),Hefei 230601)
Abstract:
Suitable lake habitats played an important role on the stability of waterbirds community structures. The change of foraging habitat affected the composition of waterbird feeding group, and then affected the stability of waterbird community structure. The effects of wetland habitat changes on waterbird community were structure studied in this paper by comparing the differences of waterbird community structure and wetland landscape in Shengjin Lake between the winters of 2014 and 2015. A total of 33 775 waterbirds belonging to 41 species, 12 families in 7 orders were observed in the winter of 2004, and 3 874 waterbirds belonging to 44 species, 12 families in 7 orders were found in the winter of 2015. The results showed the species and the number of wintering waterbirds increased. The dominant populations were Anseriformes in both winters, but the dominant species changed. Cygnus columbianus, Anser cygnoides and Anas acuta were dominant populations in 2004, but Anser fabalis and Anser albifrons were dominant populations by field observing in 2015. Meanwhile, the habitat sites of dominant populations changed, too. The dominant species in 2004 were found in Chi’an, Sanqianmu and Xiaoxihu, but dominant populations in 2015 were been found in Yang’e’tou, Bailianwei, Shegan, Sanqianmu and Shashan, Degeneration of submerged vegetation cause changes in foraging group from shallow water including Cygnus columbianus and Anas acute and in digging groups including Anser cygnoides ect. It was main reason of population declining for these two birds. The quantity of herbivorous Anseriformes such as Anser fabalis, Anser albifrons and Anser erythropus from pecking groups increased significantly due to the formation of vast Carex?spp.
Key words:  wintering waterbrids  community structure  foraging groups  habitat use  Shengjin Lake

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