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添加枯草芽孢杆菌对蛹虫草菌糠堆积发酵及其菌群的影响
罗茂春,王晓峰,陈小红,林标声
0
(龙岩学院生命科学学院,龙岩 364012; 福建省家畜传染病防治与生物技术重点实验室,龙岩 364012)
摘要:
以蛹虫草菌糠为原料,添加枯草芽孢杆菌活菌剂研究其堆积发酵过程中相关物化指标及其细菌群落组成变化。以蛹虫草菌糠在堆积发酵过程中温度的6个变化时期为依据,选定第0、6、16、20和30 天 5个时期的发酵样品作为研究对象。结果表明,在蛹虫草菌糠的整个发酵过程中,发酵温度和pH先升高后降低,含水量和C/N逐渐下降,可溶性总糖逐渐增加。发酵20 d时,发酵温度在峰值开始缓慢下降,水分、pH、C/N和可溶性总糖基本稳定。各样品的细菌群落分析表明,5个样品中分别得到了3万~4万多条的有效序列,共同拥有532个相同的OTUs,其OTUs和多样性指数均表现出先升高后降低的趋势。厚壁菌门、芽孢杆菌属(Bacillus)为各样品的主要门类和核心属,在各样品中占比最大、丰度最高。随着发酵时间的延长,各样品中细菌群落组成的种类及丰度逐渐降低,至20 d时趋于稳定。属水平上的PCA主成分分析表明,0 d、6 d样品和20 d、30 d的样品聚为一类、16 d样品再聚为另一类。总之,发酵过程中相关物化指标及细菌群落组成变化表明蛹虫草菌糠发酵第20天为发酵成熟期,此时发酵样品趋于成熟、稳定。
关键词:  蛹虫草菌糠  枯草芽孢杆菌  堆积发酵  高通量测序  细菌群落  多样性
DOI:10.13610/j.cnki.1672-352x.20180620.007
基金项目:龙岩市科技计划项目(2014LY63)和福建省大学生创新创业训练计划项目(S20181019)共同资助。
The effect of Bacillus subtilis on the piling fermentation and flora from spent mushroom substrate of Cordyceps militaris
LUO Maochun,WANG Xiaofeng,CHEN Xiaohong,LIN Biaosheng
(College of Life Science, Longyan University, Longyan 364012; Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory for the Prevention and Control of Animal Infectious Diseases and Biotechnology, Longyan 364012)
Abstract:
In this paper, the spent mushroom substrate of Cordyceps militaris was used for piling fermentation with Bacillus subtilis biological agent, and the relative physicochemical indexes and changes of bacterial community composition in the fermentation process were studied. Based on the six change periods of the temperature during the fermentation process, the fermentation samples for 0, 6, 16, 20 and 30 days were selected. The results showed that during the whole fermentation, the fermentation temperature and pH?increased?firstly and then?decreased and water content and C/N decreased gradually, while the total soluble sugar content increased gradually. On?the?20th?day?of?fermentation,?the temperature reached?its?peak, and then?began to decline slowly, while water, pH, C/N and total soluble sugar content basically kept?stable. Microbial community analysis of each sample indicated that more than 30000-40000 useful sequences were obtained from 5 samples and they shared 532 identical OTUs in common. OTUs and diversity index in 5 samples showed the trend of increasing firstly and then decreasing. Firmicutes and Bacillus were the main phyla and core genus, respectively, which had the largest proportion and the highest abundance in each sample. With the extension of fermentation time, the species composition and abundance of bacterial community in each sample decreased gradually, and tended to be stable on the 20th day of fermentation. The principal component analysis of PCA at the genus level showed that samples of the 0th, 6th, 20th and 30th day were clustered into one class, and samples of the 16th day were clustered into another. As a whole, the 20th day was the mature fermentation stage at the piling fermentation for spent mushroom substrate of
Key words:  spent mushroom substrate of Cordyceps militaris  Bacillus subtilis  piling fermentation  high- throughput sequencing  bacterial community  diversity

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