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石榴叶斑病球毛壳菌生长习性及杀菌剂筛选
杨丽芬,朱心,周春香,杨建,雷恩,程加省,孔垂思,郭建伟
0
(红河学院云南省高校农作物优质高效栽培与安全控制重点实验室,蒙自 661100;红河学院云南省高校农作物优质高效栽培与安全控制重点实验室,蒙自 661100; 云南生物资源保护与利用国家重点实验室,昆明650091;红河学院云南省高校农作物优质高效栽培与安全控制重点实验室,蒙自 661100; 勐海县勐满镇中学,西双版纳 666206;云南省农业科学院农业环境资源研究所,昆明 650205;红河学院云南省高校农作物优质高效栽培与安全控制重点实验室,蒙自 661100; 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所干旱区生物地理与生物资源重点实验室,乌鲁木齐 830011)
摘要:
采用生长速率法研究了云南蒙自石榴叶斑病球毛壳菌菌丝生长的条件及有效杀菌剂。结果表明,球毛壳菌菌丝在26~34℃均能生长,适宜温度是26~32℃,最适温度为28℃;偏好75%~85%的相对湿度,最适相对湿度为85%;光照促进菌丝生长;pH值4.5~7.5时均适宜于球毛壳Bd-2菌丝的生长,最适pH值为6.5,表明该菌偏好弱酸性环境。不同碳源、氮源对球毛壳菌菌丝生长的影响均较明显,麦芽糖和蛋白胨对菌丝生长有显著的促进作用。随后,分别用75%百菌清、80%甲基硫菌灵和80%代森锰锌等3种常见杀菌剂,以及细辛、小桐子和夹竹桃等3种植物提取液在培养基上进行抑菌实验,从菌丝生长的抑制率大小初步鉴定80%甲基硫菌灵为该病害的有效杀菌剂;在3种植物提取液中,细辛提取液对球毛壳Bd-2的菌丝生长抑制率最高,4 mg·mL-1抑菌率达100%。明确了云南蒙自石榴叶斑病球毛壳菌生长的环境条件及有效杀菌剂,为生产上化学防治提供了选择杀菌剂的理论基础。
关键词:  石榴  叶斑病  球毛壳菌  生物学特性  杀菌剂  植物提取液
DOI:10.13610/j.cnki.1672-352x.20180302.025
基金项目:红河学院中青年学术骨干人才培养计划(2015GG0206), 红河学院博士科研启动专项(XJ15B16), 红河学院应 用型研究项目(XJY15Y02), 中山大学广东省热带亚热带植物资源重点实验室开放课题(PlantKF201503), 红河学院植物保护一级学科硕士点建设项目和国家重点研发计划项目(天山北坡退化野果林生态保育与健康调控技术, 2016YFC0501500)共同资助。
Growth characteristics of mycelia of Chaetomium globusum causing pomegranate leaf spot disease and fungicides screening
YANG Lifen,ZHU Xin,ZHOU Chunxiang,YANG Jian,LEI En,CHENG Jiasheng,KONG Chuisi,GUO Jianwei
(Key Laboratory of Higher Quality and Efficient Cultivation and Security Control of Crops for Yunnan Province, Honghe University, Mengzi 661100;Key Laboratory of Higher Quality and Efficient Cultivation and Security Control of Crops for Yunnan Province, Honghe University, Mengzi 661100; State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bio-Resources in Yunnan, Kunming 650091;Key Laboratory of Higher Quality and Efficient Cultivation and Security Control of Crops for Yunnan Province, Honghe University, Mengzi 661100; Mengman Middle School, Xishuangbanna 666206;Institute of Agricultural Environment and Resources, Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Kunming 650205;Key Laboratory of Higher Quality and Efficient Cultivation and Security Control of Crops for Yunnan Province, Honghe University, Mengzi 661100; Key Laboratory of Biogeography and Bioresource in Arid Land, Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011)
Abstract:
Biological characteristics and effective fungicide of Chaetomium globosum Kunze causing leaf spot disease on pomegranate were studied using mycelia growth rate method. The results showed that the mycelia of C. globosum could grow under the temperature of 26-34℃. The suitable temperature was between 26℃ and 32℃ and the most suitable temperature was 28℃. The scope of suitable humidity was 75%-85% and the most suitable humidity was 85%. Light promoted the mycelia growth. The mycelia of C. globosum could grow at pH4.5-7.5 and the optimal pH was 6.5. The effects of different carbon and nitrogen sources on mycelia growth were significant. Maltose and peptone obviously promoted the growth of mycelia. Furthermore, three fungicides including 75% chlorothalonil, 80% thiophanate-methyl and 80% mancozeb, as well as three plant extracts including Asarum sieboldii Miq., Jatropha curcas L. and Nerium indicum Mill., were used to test fungicide resistance of C. globosum. As a result, 80% thiophanate-methyl was identified as the most effective fungicide and 4 mg·mL-1 of
Key words:  pomegranate  leaf spot disease  Chaetomium globosum Kunze  biological characteristics  fungicides  plant extracts

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