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油菜秸秆与蓝藻混合堆肥及其产物对玉米生长的影响
时君,吕得林,乔子涵,刘伸伸,巫厚长
0
(安徽农业大学资源与环境学院,合肥 230036)
摘要:
为了研究油菜秸秆与蓝藻无害化处理及资源化利用技术,开展了油菜秸秆与蓝藻混合及堆肥盆栽玉米的实验。设置了4组不同比例的油菜秸秆与蓝藻混合高温好氧堆肥处理,根据堆肥腐熟水平和肥效,筛选出油菜秸秆:蓝藻为3:2的处理,将其堆肥盆栽玉米,与施复合肥和不施肥处理比较分析玉米生长及品质指标。结果表明,油菜秸秆和蓝藻按不同比例混合堆肥过程中pH均维持在7~9,符合好氧堆肥对pH的要求,35 d后堆肥GI(germination index)在80%以上,达到完全腐熟标准。油菜秸秆与蓝藻按照3:2混合堆肥腐熟后,C/N从22.9降低为18.4,肥效(N+P2O5+K2O)为6.73%,优于其他各组。盆栽实验结果表明施堆肥和复合肥处理在玉米大喇叭口期株高与叶面积显著高于不施肥处理(P<0.05),在玉米收获后株高、穗粗、穗粒数和百粒重、粗脂肪和粗蛋白含量均显著高于不施肥处理(P<0.05),但堆肥处理与复合肥处理玉米生长、品质指标没有显著差异。油菜秸秆与蓝藻按照3:2比例混合好氧堆肥,35 d后完全腐熟,在肥效与安全性方面可以替代普通复合肥。
关键词:  油菜秸秆  蓝藻  好氧堆肥  玉米
DOI:10.13610/j.cnki.1672-352x.20171017.019
投稿时间:2017-03-31
基金项目:安徽省农业生态环保和质量安全产业技术体系专项基金(皖农科[2016]18号), 金寨县人民政府-安徽农业大学现代农业产学研联盟专项基金(金政秘[2014]47号), 国家科技支撑计划(2012BAK17B00,2012BAD15B03)和研究生创新基金(2015-36)共同资助。
Fermentation of rapeseed straw mixed with blue algae and the effect of the product on corn growth SHI Jun
SHI Jun,LV Delin,QIAO Zihan,LIU Shenshen,WU Houzhang Key words: rapeseed straw; blue algae; aerobic fermentation; corn
(School of Resources and Environment, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036)
Abstract:
In order to develop a technology to harmlessly treat and utilize the rapeseed straw and blue algae, a mixed fermentation of rape straw and blue algae was carried out and the fermented product was used in a potted corn experiment. Mixed aerobiotic fermentation of rapeseed straw and blue algae in four different ratios at a high temperature was set up. According to the fermented maturity level and fertilizer efficiency, a ratio of rapeseed straw to blue algae in 3:2 was selected. The fermented product was applied to the potted corn and compared with the compound fertilizer and no fertilizer control. The growth and quality of corns of the three treatments were analyzed. The results showed that the pH was maintained in the range of 7-9 during the fermentation period in the different ratios, which met the pH requirement of aerobic fermentation. The GI of the fermented product was 80% and above after fermentation for 35 days and reached the standard of complete maturity. The C/N ratio of the fermented product of rapeseed straw and blue algae in the ratio of 3:2 was decreased from 22.9 to 18.4, and the fertilizer efficiency (N+P2O5+K2O) was 6.73%, which was better than the other three groups. The pot experiment results showed that the plant height and leaf area in the fertilization group were significantly higher than the no fertilizer group (P<0.05) at the big trumpet stage. The physiological indexes of maize in the fertilization group were better than those in no fertilizer control. Significant differences in plant height, ear diameter, grains per spike, 100- seed weight, crude fat and crude protein (P<0.05) after harvest were observed. There was no significant difference in growth and quality indicators between the fermented product and compound fertilizer. In conclusion, rapeseed straw and blue algae mixed with the ratio of 3:2 in aerobic composting process were fully decomposed after 35 days. The fermented products can
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