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间伐对杉木低效林生物多样性及土壤养分的影响
蔡卫兵
0
(安徽省林业调查规划院,合肥 230001)
摘要:
以15年生杉木低效林为研究对象,设计间伐强度为20 %(T20)、30 %(T30)、40 %(T40)及未间伐(T0)4种间伐处理,探讨间伐2年后杉木林下生物多样性及土壤养分的变化,并采用改进层次分析法对间伐成效进行综合评价。结果表明:(1)间伐对林下植物生长具有积极的促进作用,有效提高林分的生物多样性,且林下植物种类、灌木层Simpson指数和Shannon-Weiner指数随着间伐强度增大而增加,T0、T20、T30和T40处理林下分别出现0种、12种、14种和16种植物;(2)间伐有利于改善土壤养分状况,间伐后杉木林土壤有机质含量、全磷含量、全钾含量和水解氮含量增幅依次为2.20~38.08 g·kg-1、0.19~0.98 g·kg-1、6.36~13.99 g·kg-1和19.13~154.19 mg·kg-1;(3)综合评价得到T0、T20、T30和T40处理的间伐成效指数值依次为0.294、0.503、0.724和0.732,说明T30、T40处理的间伐成效要明显好于T20处理。因此,建议对密度较大的杉木低效林按照30%~40 %的株数间伐强度进行间伐改造,并保留阔叶树种,以形成多树种、结构比较稳定、生态和经济效益更高的针阔混交林,实现可持续经营。
关键词:  杉木低效林  间伐  生物多样性  土壤养分
DOI:10.13610/j.cnki.1672-352x.20170811.010
投稿时间:2016-12-14
基金项目:国家林业公益性行业科研专项(200904015)资助。
Effect of thinning on biodiversity and soil nutrient in the low-benefit Chinese fir forest
CAI Weibing
(Forest Inventory and Planning Institute of Anhui Province, Hefei 230001)
Abstract:
The effects of four thinning intensities [20 % (T20), 30 % (T30), 40 % (T40) and the control (T0)] on the changes of biodiversity and soil nutrient in a 15-year old low-benefit Chinese fir forest were investigated. A modified?hierarchical?analysis was used to comprehensively evaluate the effect of thinning two years after the treatment. The results showed that: (1) Thinning promoted the growth and biodiversity of understory plants. The understory species number, Simpson and Shannon-Weiner index in shrub layer increased with an increase of the thinning intensity. The understory plant species numbers were 0, 12, 14 and 16 in T0, T20, T30 and T40, respectively; (2) Thinning improved the soil nutrient. Soil organic matter, total P, total K and hydrolytic N increased to 2.20-38.08 g·kg-1, 0.19-0.98 g·kg-1, 6.36 -13.99 g·kg-1 and 19.13-154.19 mg·kg-1, respectively. (3) A comprehensive evaluation showed the effect index of thinning for T0, T20, T30 and T40 was 0.294, 0.503, 0.724 and 0.732, respectively, suggesting that T30 and T40 had better effects than T20. Therefore, thinning intensity of 30%-40% should be recommended for the high density and low-benefit Chinese fir forest, and broad-leaf trees should be retained to form a stable multi-species and mixed broadleaf-conifer forest with high ecological and economic benefit to achieve the sustainable forest management.
Key words:  low-benefit Chinese fir forest  thinning  biodiversity  soil nutrient

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