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用人工模拟降雨研究不同土壤类型的产沙特征
仲亚婷,张文太,李建贵,黄俊华,张佩佩,张少博
0
(新疆农业大学林学与园艺学院,乌鲁木齐 830052;新疆农业大学草业与环境科学学院,乌鲁木齐 830052;新疆农业大学林业研究所,乌鲁木齐 830052)
摘要:
以新疆伊宁、玛纳斯县3种土壤类型为研究材料,采用室外人工模拟降雨试验、野外调查采样与土壤样品室内理化性质测定相结合的方法,比较了相同降雨条件下3种类型土壤的坡面侵蚀特征。结果表明:(1)土壤的颗粒组成和有机质含量是影响土壤可蚀性差异的主要因素。土壤中粉粒的含量越高,其含沙量、可蚀性K值愈大,越易发生侵蚀;土壤中粘粒含量越高,土壤含沙量、可蚀性K值越小,越易抵抗侵蚀。(2)相关性分析发现土壤的径流速率和产沙量的相关系数为0.56,没有显著的相关性。(3)土壤的有机质和累积含沙总量相关性分析,发现两者显著相关,相关系数为0.73。(4)通过打破土壤结构体,发现>2 mm结构体土壤中,灰钙土的产流速率、产沙量及可蚀性K值均最小;<2 mm土壤结构体中,棕钙土的产流速率、产沙量及可蚀性K值均最小,且>2 mm土壤结构体比<2 mm结构体的土壤抵抗侵蚀的能力大。
关键词:  人工模拟降雨  土壤类型  侵蚀特征
DOI:10.13610/j.cnki.1672-352x.20170524.031
基金项目:国家科技支撑计划项目(2014BAC15B03)和新疆农业大学大型仪器设备新功能开发项目共同资助。
Study on sediment yield characteristics in different soils using simulated rainfall
ZHONG Yating,ZHANG Wentai,Li Jiangui,HUANG Junhua,ZHANG Peipei,ZHANG Shaobo
(College of Forestry and Horticulture, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi 830052;College of Grassland and Environmental Sciences, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi 830052;Institute of Forestry, Xinjiang Agricultural University, Urumqi 830052)
Abstract:
Three soils in Yining County and Manas County were used as study materials. By using outdoor artificial simulated rainfall experiments, a field investigation and sampling as well as determination of physicochemical properties of soil samples in lab was conducted to compare the erosion characteristics of the three soils. Results showed that: (1) The particle composition and soil organic matter were the main factors influencing the difference in soil erodibility (K). The higher the silt content, the higher the sediment concentration and K value, which meant much easier to cause soil erosion. On the contrast, the higher the clay content in the soil, the smaller the sediment concentration and K value, which meant much easier to produce soil anti-rosion. (2) A correlation analysis showed that the correlation coefficient of runoff rate and sediment yield was 0.56, without a significant difference. (3) The soil organic matter and cumulative total sediment had a significant correlation, with the correlation coefficient of 0.73. (4) By breaking the soil aggregates, we found the three types of soils with >2 mm soil aggregates, runoff rate, sediment yield and K value of Gray calcium soil were all the least; while the soils with <2 mm soil aggregates, runoff rate, sediment yield and K value of Brown calcium soil were all the least. The anti-erosion of the soil with >2 mm soil aggregates was larger than that of the soil with <2 mm soil aggregates.
Key words:  artificial simulated rainfall  soil types  erosion characteristics

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