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巢湖柘皋河沉积物重金属分布特征与风险评价
吴迪,唐晓先,杨柳,黄维,郭传浩,施培俊,王为东
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(中国人民解放军理工大学国防工程学院,南京 210007; 中国科学院生态环境研究中心,中国科学院饮用水科学与技术重点实验室,北京 100085;巢湖管理局环境保护监测站,巢湖 238007;巢湖市城镇建设投资有限公司,巢湖 238000)
摘要:
选取柘皋河为对象,研究了巢湖东半湖入湖河流沉积物中重金属的污染状况。自流域上游至下游共布设13个监测点(编号S1~S13),调查分析表层沉积物中V、Cr、Ni、Cu、Zn、Cd和Pb等7种重金属的含量和分布特征。结果表明,柘皋河表层沉积物中重金属的污染程度为Cd>Cu>Ni>Pb>V>Zn>Cr,其中Cu和Cd在部分河段污染较重,最高含量分别达到173.78 mg·kg?1和1.11 mg·kg?1。自流域上游至下游,各重金属含量总体呈升高趋势。柘皋河上游河段的重金属污染最轻,其内梅罗综合指数为0.33,处于安全范围;下游污染加重,内梅罗综合指数达到1.67,处于轻度污染水平。应用潜在生态危害指数进行风险评估后发现:所调查的7种重金属中Cd和Cu存在较高的环境风险,特别是在流域下游风险值提高;流域下游的重金属综合生态危害指数RI大于300,具有强生态危害等级,下游段应是重金属污染治理的重点区域。聚类分析结果显示靠近柘皋河入巢湖河口的S12点是重金属累积的“汇”和“拐点”,再往下游的河口地段因受到河湖水文-水质交换的影响其重金属含量反而极速下降。分析认为,流域农业面源和下游的水产养殖活动是柘皋河重金属污染的主要来源。沉积物粒径分级结果显示,重金属在河道中自上而下的迁移和累积与水中粘粒的随波逐流和在靠近河口地段发生较明显的沉降密切相关。对柘皋河沉积物中重金属的潜在释放风险进行了评价,并提出巢湖柘皋河重金属污染的治理与控制策略。
关键词:  柘皋河  重金属  空间分布  生态风险  河湖作用
DOI:10.13610/j.cnki.1672-352x.20170524.018
基金项目:国家水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项课题(2014ZX07405-003)资助。
Distribution characteristics and risk assessment of sedimentary heavy metals in Zhegao River of Chaohu Lake
WU Di,TANG Xiaoxian,YANG Liu,HUANG Wei,GUO Chuanhao,SHI Peijun,WANG Weidong
(National Defense Engineer Corps, The PLA University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210007; Key Laboratory of Drinking Water Science and Technology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085;Environmental Protection Monitoring Station of Chaohu Administration Bureau, Chaohu 238007;Chaohu Urban Construction Investment Co. Ltd., Chaohu 238000)
Abstract:
Zhegao River at the north bank of eastern Chaohu Lake was selected to investigate the sedimentary heavy metal contamination. Thirteen sampling sites (S1-S13) were set from upstream to downstream of the river and the contents of V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in the surface sediment were analyzed. Results showed that the heavy metal contents in the surface sediment followed a descending order as: Cd > Cu > Ni >Pb> V > Zn > Cr. The level of Cd and Cu was high in some sites with the maximum values of 173.78 and 1.11 mg·kg?1, respectively. The content of sedimentary heavy metals showed an increasing trend from the upstream to the downstream, which was low in the upstream with a Nemerow composite index of 0.33 within a safe range and high in the downstream with a Nemerow index of 1.67, indicating slightly polluted. The potential ecological risk index of heavy metals indicated that Cu and Cd had a higher environmental risk among the seven investigated heavy metals, especially in the downstream. Comprehensive potential ecological risk index (RI) of heavy metals in the lower Zhegao River was over 300, indicating a
Key words:  Zhegao River  heavy metals  spatial distribution  ecological risk  interaction between river and lake

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