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黄河源区玛多县湿地生态健康评价
赵串串,张愉笛,张藜,王媛
0
(陕西科技大学环境科学与工程学院,西安 710021)
摘要:
玛多县作为“母亲河”黄河的发源地,其健康状况直接影响全国范围内生态系统的正常运作,近年来,出现大量生态问题,如水土流失。以黄河源区玛多县为研究对象,获取1988年与2013年LANDSAT遥感影像,运用景观格局理论,基于ENVI、ArcGIS和FRAGSTATS等软件完成NDVI提取,湿地类型分类,景观格局指数计算等操作,最后,构建活力-组织力-弹力-生态系统服务功能组成的评价指标体系,采用层次分析法对各指标进行权重赋值,计算1988年与2013年景观生态健康值,并进行分析。结果表明:(1)玛多县2013年健康值为0.53,低于1988年健康值,处于亚健康状态;(2)玛多县2013年活力指标大幅度下降,植被覆盖度减少,多样性降低,使得玛多县生态系统的物质基础薄弱,影响其生态健康;(3)玛多县景观组织破碎化严重,AI与CI发生不同程度降低,影响生态系统物质交换和能量循环;(4)玛多县近年来湿地萎缩明显,蓄水总量降低,加之黄河出现断流,亟需采取措施进行改善。
关键词:  黄河源区  玛多县  生态健康  评价  景观格局指数  层次分析
DOI:10.13610/j.cnki.1672-352x.20170208.020
投稿时间:2015-12-29
基金项目:青海省公益林监测横向项目资助。
Ecological health evaluation of Madoi county, the source region of the Yellow River
ZHAO Chuanchuan,ZHANG Yudi,ZHANG Li,WANG Yuan
(School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Xi’an 710021)
Abstract:
Madoi is the cradle of the Yellow River, playing a pivotal role in the operation of nationwide ecosystem. In recent years, a large number of the ecological problems including soil erosion occurred in Madoi county. Based on the remote sensing images that were taken in 1988 and 2013 and the landscape theory, NDVI extraction, wetland classification, and calculation of landscape pattern indices of Madoi county were completed using ENVI, ArcGIS and Fragstats. An evaluation system consisted of vigor, organization, resilience and services was constructed to (AHP in index' weight given value) calculate and analyze the landscape ecological health values in 1988 and 2013. The results were as follows: (1) the health value of Madoi county was 0.53 in 2013, lower than that in 1988, being in a sub-health state; (2) compared with 1988, the vigor index of Madoi county was sharply decreased in 2013, and the coverage of vegetation and the diversity index were reduced, which made the material basis of Madoi county weaker, affecting its ecological health; (3) the fragmentation degree of landscape organization was severe in Madoi county, with AI and CI reduction to some extent, affecting the material exchange and energy circulation; (4) in recent years, the wetlands shrinked significantly in Madoi county, the total amount of water was reduced, and the Yellow River drying up; therefore, an appropriate action is urgent to address the serious situation.
Key words:  Source region of Yellow River  Madoi county  ecological health  evaluation  landscape pattern index  AHP(analytic hierarchy process)

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