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内蒙古呼伦湖水体水质时空变化特征
张立杰,张生,孙标,赵胜男,梁丽娥
0
(内蒙古农业大学水利与土木建筑工程学院,呼和浩特 010018)
摘要:
为明晰呼伦湖水体水质时空变化特征和其富营养化的主要驱动环境因子,于2013至2015年每年的7、9月采集了湖中心区、沿岸区和主要河流进出口附近的共13个具有代表性的采样点的水样,对湖区水质及其时空分布进行了评价分析,并分析了影响呼伦湖水质的主要环境因子。结果显示,水质时空变异性显著,总氮、总磷、COD指标处于严重污染状态,大部分水域为Ⅴ类水,局部区域为劣Ⅴ类水,且9月湖水水质较7月普遍转好。其中,COD 7月份呈南低北高,而9月呈中心低南北高的分布特点,COD区域有从南至北转移且范围变小的趋势;总氮、总磷在空间上分布规律性不强,从7月份至9月份,总氮含量在湖区南部和北部的大部分区域有所减小,在湖区中部则有增有减且变化幅度较小,总磷含量在湖区南部普遍下降在北部普遍升高;叶绿素a在7月仅东南部的I5点附近水域含量较高,到9月该较高含量区域扩大至南部大部水域。依据水环境差异性,7月水体聚为四小类,9月聚为两大类,其中影响7月水体的主要环境因子是水温、总氮,溶解氧,影响9月水体质量的环境因子为磷盐、水温、pH。
关键词:  呼伦湖  水质评价  时空变化  影响因子
DOI:10.13610/j.cnki.1672-352x.20160712.024
投稿时间:2015-12-14
基金项目:国家自然科学基金(51339002, 51269017, 51169011, 51409288)资助。
Spatial and temporal variation of water quality in Hulun Lake
ZHANG Lijie,ZHANG Sheng,SUN Biao,ZHAO Shengnan,LIANG lie
(College of Water Resources and Civil Engineering, Inner Mongolia Agricultural University, Hohhot, 010018)
Abstract:
To better understand the spatial and temporal variation of water quality and the driving factors of eutrophication in Hulun Lake, water samples collected in July and September of 2013 to 2015 from 13 sites that cover the central, coastal, and the hydraulic control areas of the lake. The water quality, its distribution and variation, and factors affecting water quality were analyzed. The results showed that the water quality significantly varied both in space and with time. The concentrations of TN, TP and COD indicated that Hulun Lake was in a state of serious pollution. The water quality in most of the lake area could be classified as Class gradeⅤand some parts as worse than gradeⅤ. However, the water quality was getting better from July to September in most of the lake area. Among which, the concentration of COD decreased in the south area in July and then in the center area in September. The concentrations of TN and TP distributed irregularly over the lake in July and September. The concentration of TN reduced significantly in most of the south and north areas, but fluctuated in a small range. The concentration of TP increased in the north and reduced in the south from July to September. However, the concentration of chlorophyll a was only high at sampling site I5 in July, but in September it became high in most of the south area. The principal component analysis showed that the water quality could be classified to four small classes in July and two large classes in September. The main factors affecting water quality were water temperature, total nitrogen, and dissolved oxygen in July, and phosphate, salt, water temperature, and pH in September.
Key words:  Hulun lake  water quality assessment  spatial and temporal variation  effect factor

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