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西安市畜禽养殖结构及土地承载力分析
赵串串,张 藜,王媛,高瑞梅,马志峰
0
(陕西科技大学资源与环境学院,西安 710021)
摘要:
为了探究西安市畜禽粪便污染现状,对各区县的农田耕地和水质进行环境质量评价。在确定畜禽粪便年排放量的估算方法和畜禽粪便排泄系数的基础上,估算了2012年西安市畜禽粪便年产生量和主要污染物产生量。在了解各农业非点源污染成因的基础上,针对不同的污染源,提出了一些初步的控制对策和措施。结果表明,2012年西安市畜禽粪便总排放量约为498.41万t,其中牛和猪的排放量较高,分别占总量的46%和37%。畜禽粪便污染物COD、TP和TN产生量分别为12.52万t、8950 t和2.8万t。西安市部分区县的农田耕地负荷警报值分别达到Ⅱ级和Ⅳ级,已不同程度的超过了当地农田耕地的消纳能力,对环境构成污染威胁。畜禽粪便污染物入河情况十分严重,各污染源中,牛尿的污染率指数高达33.5%;各污染物中总氮和总磷的污染率指数分别为52%和41.5%。部分地区的畜禽养殖已经对西安市环境构成污染。
关键词:  畜禽养殖  农田耕地  水质  预警  承载力
DOI:10.13610/j.cnki.1672-352x.20151224.021
投稿时间:2015-09-11
基金项目:国家科技支撑计划项目(2013BAD07B08)和中盐安徽红四方肥业股份有限公司共同资助。
Analyses of the livestock and poultry industry and the environmental carrying capacity in Xi'an
ZHAO Chuanchuan,ZHANG Li,WANG Yuan,GAO Ruimei,MA Zhifeng
(College of Resource and Environment , Shaanxi University of Science and Technology , Xi’an 710021)
Abstract:
The article was aimed to explore the current livestock and poultry waste pollution and to evaluate its impact on the farmland and water quality in different districts and counties in Xi'an. Based on the estimation method of the amount of livestock manure emissions and animal fecal excretion coefficients, we estimated the amount of the annual livestock manure and main pollutants in Xi’an in 2012. Based on the pollution causes of various agricultural non-point sources, we developed some preliminary control strategies and measures for different pollution sources. The result showed as follows: the total emission of livestock and poultry was about 4.9841 million tons, and the emissions of cattle and pigs relatively high, which accounted for 46% and 37% of the total in Xi'an in 2012. The COD, TN and TP were 125200 t, 8950 t, and 28000 t, respectively. The load alarm value of farmland reached grade Ⅳ and Ⅱ. It has been beyond the absorptive capacity of the local farmland and caused a serious threat to the environment. The pollution of livestock and poultry manure was very serious, and the pollution rate of cow urine was 33.5%. The pollution rates of total nitrogen and total phosphorus were 52% and 41.5%, respectively. Livestock and poultry in some areas in Xi'an have already resulted in the pollution to the environment.
Key words:  livestock and poultry industry  farmland  water quality  precaution  carrying capacity

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