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梨品种花期冻害差异及低温诱导花器官损伤形态学观察
张超,郭黄萍,郝国伟,贾兵,朱立武
0
(安徽农业大学农业园,合肥 230036;山西省农业科学院果树科学研究所,太谷 0308002;安徽农业大学园艺学院,合肥 230036)
摘要:
为了解不同品种梨花期冻害及低温持续时间对花器官损伤的差异,在田间出现低温霜冻后,采用多点随机取样法调查了梨34个品种花期花朵冻害率,比较了树冠1.5 m以上与1.5 m以下花器官冻害差异及同一品种花序不同序位花朵受冻害情况;经-2℃低温处理1 h、2 h和4 h后,通过形态学观察研究低温处理时间对梨品种花器官损伤的影响。调查结果显示, 梨树34个品种的花朵冻害程度存在很大差异,‘红香酥’、‘花长把’、‘红考密斯’等9个品种花期抗寒性较强,‘鸭梨’、‘朝鲜洋梨’、‘明月’等10个品种花期抗寒性较弱,其余15个品种花期抗寒能力中等;树冠1.5 m以上比1.5 m以下花器官冻害明显减轻;同一花序不同序位花朵冻害程度也呈现明显差别,低序位花较高序位花更易受冻;-2℃低温处理时间越长,花器官冻害发生率越高,其中雄蕊冻害发生率较雌蕊、花瓣低;‘砀山酥梨’、‘黄金梨’和‘黄花梨’花蕾期或盛花期花朵冻害离体诱导,证明开花期早的比开花晚的花器官遭受冻害更严重。研究结果为探索梨树花期冻害发生规律及品种抗冻机理提供了试验依据。
关键词:  梨树  品种  花期  低温冻害  花器官损伤
DOI:10.13610/j.cnki.1672-352x.20150825.030
基金项目:国家现代农业产业技术体系建设专项(CARS-29-14)资助。
Differences of pear flower frost damage and morphological observation of floral organ freezing injury induced by low-temperature treatment
ZHANG Chao,GUO Huangping,HAO Guowei,JIA Bing,ZHU Liwu
(Experimental Farm, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036;Institute of Pomology, Shanxi Acadermy of Agricultural Science, Taigu 0308002;School of Horticulture, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036)
Abstract:
To understand the differences of pear flower damaged by frost and floral organ freezing injury induced by low-temperature treatment, the rates of damaged flower of 34 pear cultivars were investigated by the method of multiple sites sampling after the occurrence of frost in pear orchard, and the comparison of incidents of injured flower on tree canopy higher or lower than 1.5 meters and in different flower order on the same inflorescence were also conducted in the field investigation. The floral organ freezing injury was studied by morphological observation under the of treatment at -2℃ with duration of 1 h, 2 h, or 4 h. The results showed that there was a positive difference of flower frost damage between 34 cultivars of pear; of which, nine cultivars including ‘Hongxiangsu’, ‘Huangchangba’ and ‘Red Comice’ were hardiest, ten cultivars including ‘Yali’, ‘Chaoxianyangli’ and ‘Meigetsu’ weakest, and the rest 15 cultivars were in the middle class of the frost hardness. The injure flowers on tree canopy higher than 1.5 meters were less than those lower than 1.5 meters. Flowers at lower orders were more easily damaged by frost than those at higher ones in the same inflorescence. The longer the freezing duration at ﹣2℃, the higher the incidence of freezing injury. Among different floral organs, freezing injury rate of stamens was lower than that of pistils and petals. The results would provide the basic evidences for the further studies of the rule of frost occurrence and the mechanisms resistant to freezing injury in pear cultivars.
Key words:  pear plant  cultivar  bloom stage  freezing damage  injury of floral organs

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