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地熊蜂访花行为及对番茄营养品质的影响
杨佳林,顾向红,肖克来提,吉别克,刘燕,焦子伟
0
(伊犁州农业技术推广总站,伊宁 835000;伊犁师范学院化学与生物科学学院,伊宁 835000)
摘要:
为了深入分析熊蜂在新疆伊犁温室番茄上的授粉行为及对营养品质的影响,以地熊蜂为材料,观察地熊蜂日活动规律,测定其出巢温度、授粉温度、蜂群30 min内的出巣数及工作时间;分别对熊蜂授粉、座果灵蘸花授粉处理(对照)的番茄进行可溶性固形物、硬度、维生素C、还原糖、总酸及种子数等营养成分的测定,明确番茄储藏期间可溶性固形物、硬度的变化规律。结果表明,地熊蜂出巢、授粉温度分别为8℃和9℃,日工作时间为10 h,在13:00左右熊蜂的出巢数达到最大值;熊蜂授粉处理的番茄,其维生素C、可溶性固形物含量、硬度和种子数显著高于对照,呈极显著性差异 (P<0.01);经回归方程预测,熊蜂授粉处理的果实储存时间比对照延长5.75 d,提高番茄的保质期和营养价值。
关键词:  番茄  地熊蜂  授粉行为  激素  营养成分
DOI:10.13610/j.cnki.1672-352x.20150424.026
基金项目:新疆维吾尔自治区科技支疆项目, 设施农业昆虫授粉技术引进及示范推广(2013911069), 新疆维吾尔自治区高层次人才引进工程项目及新疆维吾尔自治区基层青年科技人才项目(2013741095)共同资助。
Flower-visiting behaviors of Bombus terrestris and its effect on the nutritional quality of tomato in greenhouse
YANG Jialin,GU Xianghong,XIAO Kelaiti,JI Bieke,LIU Yan,JIAO Ziwei
(Agricultural Technology Extension Station of Yili State, Yining 835000;College of Chemistry and Biological Sciences, Yili Normal University, Yining 835000)
Abstract:
The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of pollination behavior of bumble bees on the nutritional quality of the greenhouse tomatoes in Ili prefecture, Xinjiang Uugar autonomous region. In this paper, the daily activity of Bombus terrestris was observed and the nest and pollination temperatures, the nest number within 30 minute, and the swarm working time were tested. The concentration of soluble solid, firmness, vitamin C, reducing sugar, total acid, and seed number in tomato fruits developed from the flowers visited by Bombus terrestris or sprayed with the hormone solution (the control) were compared to determine the?changes of soluble?solid?and firmness of tomatoes during the storage period. The results showed that bumble bees’ nest and pollination temperatures were 8℃and 9℃, respectively. The daily working time was 10 hours, and the number of out-of-nest peaked at about 13:00 pm. The?content of? vitamin C, soluble?solid, firmness, and the seed number in tomatoes developed from bee-pollinated flowers were significantly higher than those in the control (P<0.01). It was predicted using the regression analysis that bee pollination extended the storage life of tomatoes for 5.75 days that was longer than that in the control. It was clear that bee pollination enhanced the nutritional value and shelf life of tomatoes.
Key words:  Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.   Bombus terrestris  foraging behavior  hormone  nutrient content

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