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两个太和樱桃品种生长结果特性研究
陶婧,杨军,马欢,郭靖
0
(安徽农业大学园艺学院,合肥 230036)
摘要:
以太和樱桃主栽品种大鹰嘴、金红桃为试材,对其花粉结构与萌发率、结果特性、果实生长发育动态进行统计研究,并检测成熟果实总糖、可滴定酸、维生素C等品质指标。结果表明:(1)2个品种樱桃花粉在电子显微镜条件下观察到的结构特征差异明显,大鹰嘴花粉外形结构为长球形,外壁条纹状,极面沟延伸程度较深,金红桃花粉外形结构为纺锤形,外壁带穿孔,极面沟延伸程度浅。(2)不同浓度的硼酸对樱桃花粉萌发率的影响差异显著,浓度过高或过低时花粉萌发率均会降低,在硼酸浓度为0.2 g·L-1的培养基中樱桃花粉萌发率最高,大鹰嘴为61.2%、金红桃为55.4%。(3)太和樱桃自然授粉坐果率较高,平均为60%以上,自花传粉坐果率较低,平均为15.5%。(4)2个品种的4种结果枝类型比例关系近似,均以中果枝和长果枝为主,短果枝和混合果枝为辅。(5)4种结果枝坐果能力以长果枝和中果枝坐果率较高,以混合果枝和短果枝坐果率较低。果实生长发育类型近似于“双S”型,生长前期果实横径的增长幅度小于纵径,第2次生长高峰期开始则是横径大于纵径。(6)成熟果实可溶性固形物、维生素C含量较高,大鹰嘴的可溶性固形物与维生素C含量分别为17.8 %、144 mg·kg-1,金红桃分别为16.5%、141 mg·kg-1,果皮色泽艳丽,外形美观,营养丰富,品质优良,两个品种均适宜推广栽培。
关键词:  太和樱桃  花粉  结果特性  果实品质
DOI:10.13610/j.cnki.1672-352x.20141225.012
投稿时间:2014-05-28
基金项目:国家公益性行业 (农业)科研专项 (201203075)和安徽水果产业技术体系共同资助。
The growth and fuiting characteristics of two Taihe cherry cultivars
TAO Jing,YANG Jun,MA Huan,GUO Jing
(School of Horticulture, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036)
Abstract:
Two Taihe cherry cultivars, ‘Dayingzui’ and ‘Jinhong’ were used to investigate their pollen structure and germination, fruiting characteristics, and fruit growth and development. The fruit quality including total sugar, titratable acid, and vitamin C contents were determined. The results showed as follows. (1) Differences in pollen structure between two cherry cultivars were significant under an electron microscope. The pollen shape of ‘Dayingzui’ was spheroidal with outer stripe and deep extension in polar sulcus, while the pollen of ‘Jinhong’ was fusiform with perforation in outer wall and shallow extension in polar furrow. (2) The pollen germination rate of two varieties was obviously affected by the concentration of boric acid. The highest pollen germination rates of ‘Dayingzui’ and ‘Jinhong’ were 61.2% and 55.42%, respectively, both in the medium with 0.2 g·L-1 boric acid. (3) The fruit setting rate of Taihe cherry under the natural pollination condition was over 60% in average, which was higher than self-pollination (15.5% in average). (4) No significant difference in the proportion of four bearing-branch types was found between the two cultivars. The number of long and medium-long fruit bearing branches was dominant, following with short and mixed fruit bearing branches. (5) The fruit setting rate on the long and medium-long fruit-bearing branches was higher than that of short and mix fruit-bearing branches. (6) The pattern of fruit growth and development was similar to "double S", with a quick growth of longitudinal diameter and transverse diameter at the early and second fast growing stage, respectively. (7) Taihe cherry fruit has high soluble solid and vitamin C contents with 17.8% and 144 mg·kg-1 fresh fruit weight (FW) in ‘Dayingzui’, and 16.5% and 141 mg·kg-1 FW in ‘Jinhong’, respectively. The cultivars are beautiful in color, rich in nutritions with excellent overall fruit quality and suitable for a large scale commercial production.
Key words:  Taihe cherry  pollen  fruiting characteristics  fruit quality

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