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江心洲南京生态科技岛植被类型及优化措施
叶海跃,熊星,伊贤贵,谢春平
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(江苏开放大学城市科学系,南京 210017;南京林业大学森林资源与环境学院,南京 210037;南京森林警察学院物证鉴定中心,南京210023)
摘要:
利用植物群落学研究方法,在江心洲南京生态科技岛内的设立了54个标准样地,并就该岛内的植被类型及群落结构进行了分析。结果表明:(1)洲岛内维管植物共计95科203属266种,其中蕨类植物4科4属5种,裸子植物6科8属9种,被子植物85科191属252种,其中入侵植物12科20属23种;另有国家Ⅰ级重点保护植物3种,国家Ⅱ级重点保护植物5种。(2)洲岛可划分为5个生态植被类型,包括I沿江滩涂湿地生态类型、II内陆湿地生态类型、III森林生态类型、IV农业种植生态类型和V构筑物干扰生态类型。(3)提出了相应的生态恢复措施,通过原有植被保护、林相改造、重新构建等3种策略实现;针对洲尾、洲西侧廊道和洲头等群落现状特征,提出以群落构建优化为主的生态恢复措施,以期为江心洲及类似洲岛生态恢复提供借鉴。
关键词:  南京生态科技岛  植被类型  生态优化
DOI:10.13610/j.cnki.1672-352x.20141225.029
基金项目:江苏开放大学“十二五”规划课题(12SEW-Q-079)资助。
Vegetation types and ecological restoration in Nanjing ecological technology island (Jiangxin Island)
YE Haiyue,XIONG Xing,YI Xiangui,XIE Chunping
(The Department of City Science, The City Vocational College of Jiangsu, Nanjing 210017;College of Forest Resources and Environment, Nanjing Forestry University, Nanjing 210037;Identification Center of Criminal Evidence, Nanjing Forest Police College, Nanjing 210046)
Abstract:
The vegetation types and plant community structure in Nanjing ecological technology island (Jiangxin Island) were investigated using 54 standard sampling plots. The results were as follows. (1) A total of 266 species of vascular plants that belong to 203 genera in 95 families were found on the island. These plants can be classified into five fern species in four genera of four families, nine gymnosperm species belonging to eight genera in six families, and 252 angiosperm species belonging to 191 genera in 85 families. In addition, 23 species belonging to 20 genera in 12 families are invasive plants, three species are national levelⅠ protection plants, and five species are national level Ⅱ protection plants. (2) The island can be divided into five vegetation types: I, wetland ecosystem types along the tidal; II, inland wetlands types; III, forest ecological types; IV, agricultural types; and V, Structure types of interference. (3) Ecological restorations can be achieved through three strategies, including the original vegetation protection, forest transformation, and ecological reconstruction. According to the ecological characteristics of tail plaques, west corridor, and head plaque, we have proposed several targeted ecological restoration measures for optimizing ecology of Jiangxin Island and the similar islands.
Key words:  Nanjing ecological technology island  vegetation types  ecological restoration

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