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北京近自然园林绿地植物群落综合评价指标体系研究
冯彩云,许新桥,孙振元
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(中国林学会,北京 100091;中国林业科学研究院林业研究所,北京 100091)
摘要:
为科学地评价园林绿地植物群落的质量,以北京17个园林绿地植物群落为研究对象,应用德尔斐法和层次分析法从自然度和景观美学指数两方面以植物群落组成、植物群落活力、干扰程度、植物群落结构、植物群落风景要素和植物配置要素等6个二级指标、植物群落地域特色、Simpson指数、Shannon-Wiener指数、Pielou指数、天然更新幼苗数、植物群落郁闭度、人类活动、自然灾害、植物群落层次、直径分布、季相变化丰富度、观赏特性丰富度、植物群落与整体环境协调性、植物群落的景观地带性特色、植物生活型结构丰富度、植物物种多样性和植物生长势17个三级指标构建了近自然园林绿地植物群落的综合评价指标体系。结果表明,北京市园林绿地植物群落综合得分在0.35~0.71之间,评价等级多集中在Ⅱ级、Ⅲ级,这与实际情况相符,说明近自然园林绿地植物群落综合评价指标体系具有可操作性、有效性和实用性。文中最后建议用近自然园林的理念来营造园林绿地、加强对乡土植物物种的研究和应用以提高园林绿地植物群落的质量。
关键词:  近自然园林  植物群落  综合评价指标体系  德尔斐法  层次分析法  北京
DOI:10.13610/j.cnki.1672-352x.20141029.011
基金项目:宁波市重大科技攻关项目(2013C11034), 国家自然科学基金(40971041)和上海市科学技术委员会科研计划项目(08DZ1203102)共同资助。
A comprehensive evaluation system for nature-approximating landscape architecture plant community in Beijing
FENG Caiyun,XU Xinqiao,SUN Zhenyuan
(Chinese Society of Forestry, Beijing 100091;Research Institute of Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091)
Abstract:
A comprehensive evaluation index system for nature-approximating landscape architecture plant community was established using Delphi method and AHP(analytic hierarchy process) from nature and landscape aesthetics aspects. A total of six specifications at the second level, including plant community composition, the vigor, disturbing degree, the structure, landscaping, and configuration elements, were taken into account. Another 17 indexes at the third level, including plant community characteristics, Simpson index, Shannon-Wiener index, Pielou index, number changes of seedlings, canopy density, human activities, natural disasters, diameter distribution levels, seasonal changes, sightseeing characteristics, relationship with surrounding environment, characteristics of local zone, ecological structures, biodiversity, and the vigor of plant growth were also evaluated for their contributions to the system. The system was used to evaluate the landscaping architecture in 17 studied stands in Beijing. The results showed that the comprehensive score of the studied stands were 0.35-0.71 and the grades of most stands were centered around level II or III. In general, the assessment grades of plant communities in Beijing were not high, which was in agreement with the actual situation. It proved the validity of the system. Finally, it was suggested that improving plant community landscape architecture through applying the natural landscape architecture idea and strengthening the usage of native plant species might be more sustainable.
Key words:  nature-approximating landscape architecture  plant community  comprehensive evaluation system  Delphi method  AHP  Beijing

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