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无患子外种皮提取物防除玉米田杂草研究
雒东,陶吴群,荀航,姚曦,方向群,章守富,汤锋
0
(国际竹藤中心 竹藤科学与技术重点实验室,北京100102; 安徽农业大学资源与环境学院,合肥230036;安徽省桐城市植保植检站,桐城231400)
摘要:
为了评价无患子外种皮提取物(以下称无患子提取物)及其与除草剂复配制剂的田间实际除草效果,作者在安徽省桐城市黄甲镇农田开展了无患子提取物及其与甲草胺、噁草酮的4种复配制剂防除玉米田杂草的田间药效试验。结果表明,供试药剂对玉米田主要杂草具有良好的防除效果。在3900~4500 mL·hm-2的用量范围内,施药后15 d和30 d,30%无患子提取物水剂对马唐、莎草的株防效分别达82%和87%以上,鲜重防效都达85%以上;对丁香蓼的株防效达75%以上,鲜重防效达82%以上;对总草的鲜重防效达83%以上。无患子提取物与甲草胺(含量20%)、噁草酮(含量6%)复配,在化学除草剂用量减半的情况下,依然表现出突出的除草效果。无患子提取物与甲草胺复配,在4500 mL·hm-2的用量下,施药后15 d和30 d,对马唐、莎草的株防效分别达90%和94%以上;对丁香蓼的株防效达79%以上;对总草的鲜重防效达88%以上。无患子提取物与噁草酮复配,在3600 mL·hm-2的用量下,施药后15 d和30 d,对马唐、莎草的株防效分别达94%和96%以上;对丁香蓼的株防效达94%以上;对总草的鲜重防效达96%以上。本研究结果对于减少化学除草剂的用量,减少化学农药对环境的污染,在一定程度上降低农产品农药残留风险,具有重要的参考价值,为无患子资源的开发利用,提供了理论依据。
关键词:  无患子提取物  化感作用  植物源除草剂  杂草防除  甲草胺  噁草酮
DOI:10.13610/j.cnki.1672-352x.20140620.010
基金项目:引进国际林业先进科学技术项目(2012-4-16)资助。
Weed control in corn fields by extracts from Sapindus mukurossi peel
LUO Dong,TAO Wuqun,XUN Hang,YAO Xi,FANG Xiangqun,ZHANG Shoufu,TANG Feng
(Key Laboratory of Bamboo and Rattan Science and Technology, International Center for Bamboo and Rattan, Beijing 100102; School of Resources & Environment, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036;Plant Protection & Quarantine Station of Tongcheng County, Tongcheng 231400)
Abstract:
The effect of Sapindus mukorossi peel extracts on the growth of weeds in corn fields at Huangjia town of Tongcheng city in Anhui province, China was determined. The results showed that the testa extracts of Sapindus mukorossi alone or mixed with herbicides could significantly inhibit the emergence and fresh weights of weeds in corn fields. The aqueous solution (AS) of 30% extracts inhibited emergenceof Sapindus mukorossi was more than 82% and 87% of Digitaria sanguinalis and Ludwigia prostrate, respectively and the fresh weight of these weeds was controlled above 85% after spraying for 15 d or 30 d at doses of 3900-4500 mL·hm-2, respectively. For Cyperus rotundus, the inhibited emergence was more than 75%, and fresh weight was more than 82%. The inhibited fresh weight to all weeds was more than 83%. When the two herbicides, namely alachlor (PC 20%) and oxadiazon (PC 6%) was mixed to used, with reduced dosage of chemical herbicides, would significantly inhibited the growth of weeds. The 4500 mL·hm-2 of the mixture with alachlor markedly inhibited emergence (>90%, 94% and 79%) for Digitaria sanguinalis, Ludwigia prostrate and Cyperus rotundus, and fresh weight (>88%). The 3600 mL·ha-1 of the mixture with oxadiazon could markedly inhibit the emergence in more than 94% and fresh weight in more than 96%. Sapindus mukorossi may have inhibitory potential on weeds as a natural corn field herbicide.
Key words:  Sapindus mukorossi extracts   allelopathy  botanical herbicidal  weed control  alachlor  oxadiazon

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