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不同施肥模式对小麦产量和品质的影响
盛康,潘广元,李友强,董召荣,宋贺
0
(安徽农业大学农学院,合肥 230036)
摘要:
通过对不同碳氮管理方式下华北平原南端的皖麦68品质和产量进行研究,探讨该地区合理的碳氮管理措施。结果表明,与农民传统施肥相比,减氮处理没有显著降低小麦关键时期叶绿素含量、抗氧化酶活性,也没有改变显著降低皖麦68的产量和品质;在所有碳氮处理中,堆肥处理和有机肥处理的小麦产量最高,分别为8988.2、8949.9 kg·hm-2,显著高于其它处理,这两个处理通过提高小麦后期叶片抗氧化酶活性和叶绿素含量增加小麦籽粒千粒重;在小麦品质方面,堆肥处理的蛋白质含量、容重、湿面筋含量、稳定时间和出粉率均分别显著高于有机肥处理。秸秆处理关键生育时期叶绿素含量和抗氧化酶活性、产量及品质均低于其它施肥处理。以上说明,该地区在氮肥投入量方面有较大降低潜力,短期小麦秸秆直接还田有降低小麦产量和品质的风险,而施用有机肥和堆肥是该地区显著提高小麦产量和品质的有效措施。
关键词:  冬小麦  产量  品质  皖麦68
DOI:10.13610/j.cnki.1672-352x.20140620.012
投稿时间:2014-03-13
基金项目:公益性行业(农业)科研专项(201103001), 安徽省农业科技成果转化项目(1404032001)和安徽省教育厅重大科技项目共同资助。
Effect of different fertilizer treatments on yield and quality of wheat
SHENG Kang,PAN Guangyuan,LI Youqiang,DONG Zhaorong,SONG He
(School of Agronomy, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036)
Abstract:
To find a feasible C and N management method in wheat field, the effect of carbon and nitrogen application method on the quality and yield of medium-gluten wheat ‘Wanmai 68’ in the southern region of the North China Plain was studied. The results showed that reduction of nitrogen fertilizer did not obviously decreased the wheat’s chlorophyll content and antioxidant enzyme activity during critical period for the growth of wheat; it also did not significantly lowered the yield and quality of ‘Wanmai 68’. Among all the carbon and nitrogen treatments, wheat received compost and organic fertilizer noticeably performed better than those applied with other fertilizers with the highest yield of 8988.2 kg·hm-2 and 8949.9 kg·hm-2, respectively. Application of compost and organic fertilizer could increase the antioxidant enzyme activity and chlorophyll content in wheat leaves in its later growth stage and increase 1000-kernel weight of wheat grain as well. In an addition, the quality of ‘Wanmai 68’ including protein content, bulk density, wet gluten content and flour yield are higher and more stable when compost fertilizer was used compared to other organic fertilizers. Meanwhile, application of crop stalks during the critical period lowered the chlorophyll content, antioxidant enzyme activity, yield, and quality of ‘Wanmai 68’. Results in this study suggest a great potential of decreasing nitrogen input in wheat production and direct returning crop stalk to the field might be a risk of decreasing wheat yield and quality in a short time. However, using compost and organic fertilizers could be an effective approach to greatly increase wheat yield and quality in this region.
Key words:  winter wheat  yield  quality  ‘Wanmai 68’

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