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油茶等植物提取物及制剂抑线效果
王龙平,宛晓春,侯如燕,徐劲峰,吴慧平
0
(安徽农业大学农业部、教育部茶叶生物化学与生物技术重点实验室,合肥 230036;安徽省潜山县植保站,安庆 246300;安徽农业大学植物保护学院,合肥 230036)
摘要:
为了寻找植源性杀线虫活性材料,利用Bursaphelenchus xyluplilusMeloidogyne incognita 作为室内离体生测目标,测定了油茶籽饼等植物材料的杀线活性,以及茶皂素制剂和油茶籽饼对作物根结线虫的盆栽和大田防效。结果表明,油茶籽饼、茶果皮和茶籽粗提物均具有较强的杀线活性,当粗提物浓度为10 mg·mL-1,作用72 h,B. xyluplilus校正死亡率分别为90%、100%和100%;作用48 h,油茶籽饼和茶籽粗提物对M. incognita达到中强杀线活性,其毒力有明显浓度效应;茶皂素制剂对番茄根结线虫病有良好盆栽防效,用茶皂素 (有效含量) 1.5和0.75 g·kg-1处理盆土30 d后,番茄的根结和M. incognita 2龄幼虫(Juvenile 2, J2)均下降,对番茄苗期生物量有明显的增加。在瓜蒌出苗前1周,沟施油茶籽饼,用量2.5 t·hm-2时对大田瓜蒌根结线虫病有较好的防效,显著抑制土壤中J2的增殖,对瓜蒌的挂果数和果径有一定的增加。该文首次报道油茶副产物对作物线虫病害的盆栽和田间防效,为直接利用油茶籽饼或茶籽等防治作物的根结线虫病害提供了依据。
关键词:  油茶  茶皂素  南方根结线虫  杀线活性  防效
DOI:
基金项目:国家公益性行业(农业)科研专项 (200903040)资助。
Control of Camellia plant extracts and its preparation against plant parasitic nematodes
WANG Long-ping,WAN Xiao-chun,HOU Ru-yan,XU Jin-feng,WU Hui-ping
(Key Laboratory of Tea Biochemistry & Biotechnology, Ministry of Agriculture, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036;Plant Protection Station of Qianshan County, Anqing 246300;School of Plant Protection, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036)
Abstract:
For the aim of screening nematicidal materials, Bursaphelenchus xyluplilus and Meloidogyne incognita were used as target in vitro bioassay to determined nematicidal activity of oil-tea cake and other plant materials; further control effects of tea-saponin preparations and oil-tea cake were assessed against root-knot nematode disease in pot experiment and field experiment, respectively. The results showed that plant extracts of oil-tea cake, tea-pericarp, and tea-seed reached strong nematocidal activity, inducing 90, 100 and 100% mortality of B. xyluplilus respectively at 10 mg/ml after exposure for 72 h. Plant extracts of oil-tea cake and tea-seed reached medium-strong activity against M.incognita after exposure for 48 h. The effects of plant extracts concentrations on toxicity against B.xyluplilus were observed. The tea-saponin preparations obviously controlled tomato root-knot nematode disease in pot experiment, root gall, and M. incognita juvenile 2 (J2) population were reduced; tomato biomass were increased obviously at 30 d after pot-soil treated with 1.5 g and 0.75 g (effective content) tea saponin per 1 kg soil at tomato seedling transplant. Oil-tea cake showed certain effect against root-knot nematode disease in field experiment applied by furrow application one week before Fructus Trichosanthis emergence, and the proliferation of J2 in soil was inhibited significantly 150 d later, while the fruit number and diameter were increased 180 d later after application. This paper reported the pot and field control effects of oil-tea vice products against plant nematodes for the first time. The results provide a basis for directly using oil tea and tea vice-products to the control of crop root-nematode disease.
Key words:  Camellia oleifera   tea saponin  Meloidogyne incognita  nematicidal activity  control effect

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