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平菇在12种秸秆主料基质中生长情况的初步研究
范可章,陈灵,蔡健,刘生杰,李焰焰,沈益新
0
(阜阳师范学院生命科学学院,阜阳 236041;阜阳市宁老庄高级职业中学,阜阳 236036;南京农业大学动物科技学院,南京 210095)
摘要:
为了解不同作物秸杆主料基质在栽培平菇时所表现出的结果,特配制12种不同秸杆材料基质来栽培平菇。结果表明:平菇菌丝在各基质中的长速、长势及头茬子实体产量都表现出明显差异。平菇菌丝在油菜秸秆基质中长速最快,长势为优,结菇最早;在以黄豆秸秆、棉花秸秆和棉籽壳为主料的基质中,长速稍慢,结菇稍晚,头茬菇产量最好;在以高粱糠和高粱秸秆为主料的基质中,长速波动大,长势为良,头茬菇产量低,且出现死菇;在以玉米芯为主料的基质中,长速慢,长势良,头茬菇产量中等;在花生秧主料基质中,长速最慢,但长势为优,试验结束时未形成产量;在甘薯藤、小麦秸秆、玉米秸秆和白杨树叶为主料的基质中,长速最慢,且长势最差,实验结束未形成产量。根据各基质成分特点分析,只有当C/N在20~50之间,且基质中可溶性糖与粗纤维质量比在1附近时,菌丝才能生长最好,产量最高。因此,用不同秸杆主料栽培平菇时,必须根据其成分特点配制基质。
关键词:  作物秸杆  不同基质  平菇  生长情况  初步研究
DOI:CNKI:34-1162/S.20110829.1429.007
基金项目:国家科技支撑(2009BAD6B06-5)和安徽省教育厅教研项目(2008jyxm460)共同资助。
Preliminary study on oyster mushroom growth situation in 12 kinds of straw substrates
FAN Ke-zhang,CHEN Ling,CAI Jian,LIU Sheng-jie,LI Yan-yan,SHEN Yi-xin
(School of Life Science, Fuyang Teachers College, Fuyang 236041;Advanced Professional High School of Ning Lao Zhuang, Fuyang 236036;College of Animal Science and Technology, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095)
Abstract:
In order to know the effects of straw substrates on the growth situation of oyster mushroom, twelve kinds of straw substrates were used respectively. The results indicate that the growth speed, growth vigour and the yield of the mycelia for the first harvest present remarkable difference in different substrates. The growth speed of mycelia in cole straw substrate is the quickest, the growth vigour is excellent, and the fructification is the earliest; in pulse, cotton straw and the shell of cotton seed substrates, the mycelial growth speed is quicker, the mycelial fructification is earlier, but the yield for the first harvest is the best; in broomcorn straw and the chaff of broomcorn substrates, the mycelial growth speed is very undulatory in different periods, the growth vigour of the mycelia is fine, and the yield for the first harvest is lower, moreover, small mushrooms are easy to death; in corn cob substrate, the mycelial growth speed is low, the growth vigour of the mycelial is fine, and the yield for the first harvest is middling; in peanut straw substrate, the mycelial growth speed is the lowest, but the growth vigour of the mycelia is excellent, and there is no yield in the end; in the sweet potato, wheat, corn, etc, straw substrates and the leaves of polar substrate, the mycelial growth is the lowest, the growth vigour of the mycelia is the worst, and there are no yield in the end. According the ingredients of the different substrates, only when the range of “C/N” is from“20” to “50”, and that the ratio between the dissolubility glucide and the gross fibrin in the substrate is near the “1”, the mycelial’s growth is the best, the yield for the first harvest is the highest. Therefore, the straw substrates must be adjusted before using them to plant oyster mushroom.
Key words:  crop straw  different substrates  oyster mushroom  growth situation  preliminary study

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