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生态系统反馈形成原因的分析
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摘要:
早已注意到生态系统中普遍存在着正、负反馈现象,然而却很少研究这两类反馈形成的原因.作者认为正反馈主要起因于现状是未来发展的主要基础,生命对于外界条件有主动的选择性,即有选择地吸收它熟悉的物质和信息,体现着经济高效的生存对策.正反馈的另外成因来自于生物成员间加大的原始协作、性状突变以及锻炼和学习.负反馈的主要成因是共同资源限制、相互干扰抑制、大量因子的自身维持代价变大以及冗余变大.文中以较大篇幅讨论现状是未来发展的主要基础和大量因子自身维持代价变大的问题.
关键词:  反馈成因  生态系统  生态学理论  农业生态学
DOI:
修订日期:2003-12-24
基金项目:中国科学院知识创新工程项目 , 棉花害虫生物防治项目
On the Formation of Feedback Mechanisms in Ecosystems
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Abstract:
It is well known that there are positive and negative feedbacks universally in ecosystems,but few researches have been done on the formation of feedback mechanisms.In this paper,the authors present that the positive feedback coming mainly from that the present status is the major foundation of future development.An organism trends to observe selectively its familiar material and information from the environment,which is required by a survival strategy with an economical and high efficiency.The positive feedback is also from the increase in the primitive co-operation,mutation,training and learning among individuals.The main mechanisms of negative feedback are believed to be the limitation of common resources,mutual disturbing and suppression,and the higher maintenance cost and larger redundancy of a large-numbered component.The large-numbered component is frequently touched as cheap resource trends to be exploited and utilized by other components in the environment.The authors emphasize the present status as the base of future development and the higher maintenance cost of a large-numbered component.
Key words:  feedback mechanism,ecosystem,ecological theory,agro-ecology

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