国家现代小麦产业技术体系专项（CARS-03）, 国家自然科学基金联合基金（U20A2033）, 安徽高校协同创新项目（GXXT-2021-058）和安徽省科技重大专项（2021d06050003）共同资助。
根据4年的表型数据，并结合实验室开发和鉴定的13个分子标记，对我国833份小麦种质资源（主要包括278份小麦微核心种质、124份地方品种和431份现代推广品种及高代品系）穗发芽抗性进行鉴定。结果表明，13个分子标记鉴定的抗/感穗发芽等位类型间相对发芽指数（RGI）差异均达显著或极显著水平，其中TaMFT-222 和TaMFT-194 标记鉴定的差异最大，U 值分别为14.98**和11.30**，均达极显著水平，其优异等位类型可以降低相对发芽指数0.21 ~ 0.32。其次是Sdr2A、CNGC2AL、Vp1-b2、TaMKK3-A、PM19、CAPS-2AL、A17-19和EX06323标记，其等位类型间穗发芽抗性差异也均达极显著水平；Qsd1和Barc321 标记也能显著区分穗发芽抗性。共计鉴定出63份穗发芽抗性较好的种质资源，其中达到抗的有41份，多为红皮品种和地方品种；达到中抗的有22份，白皮半冬性居多。利用分子标记辅助选择，并结合杂交聚合，创制出12份穗发芽抗性水平达到中抗和抗的种质资源，至少携带3个抗穗发芽基因/位点。该结果为抗穗发芽新品种选育提供重要遗传资源。
Based on four years' phenotypic data, and combined with 13 molecular markers developed and identified in our laboratory, 833 wheat germplasm resources (including 278 wheat micro-core germplasms, 124 local varieties and 431 modern promoted varieties and advanced lines) were identified for pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) resistance. The results showed that the differences in relative germination index (RGI) were significant or extremely significant between the resistance and sensitive alleles (R/S) of the 13 molecular markers, respectively. Among these markers, the largest difference between R/S was identified in TaMFT-222 and TaMFT-194 markers, which U values were 14.98** and 11.30**, respectively, and reached the extremely significant level. The RGI could be reduced from 0.21 to 0.32 by the two resistant alleles, respectively. The next markers were Sdr2A, CNGC2AL, Vp1-b2, TaMKK3-A, PM19, CAPS-2AL, A17-19 and EX06323, as well as the significant differences in PHS resistance were also detected among R/S alleles. The Qsd1 and Barc321 markers could also significantly distinguish PHS resistance between R/S alleles. A total of 63 germplasm resources with high PHS resistance were identified in this study. The 41 germplasms mainly including red-grained and local varieties had higher PHS resistance than that of the 22 germplasms mostly with the white grained. Through using hybridization combined with marker-assisted selection, the PHS resistance genes/loci were pyramided, and 12 new breeding materials with high pre-harvest sprouting resistance were created, which carried at least 3 genes/loci for PHS resistance. The result can provide important genetic resources for breeding new varieties with high PHS resistance.