为探究川荞1号、西荞1号、米荞1号以及迪苦4个品种苦荞麦种子形态性状差异并鉴定其化学成分， 观察了不同品种苦荞麦种子的形态差异，同时进行千粒重和含水量的测试，并采用超高效液相色谱-四极杆-静电场轨道阱高分辨质谱(UPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS)技术，快速分析鉴定了4个品种苦荞麦的化学成分。结果表明： 4个品种苦荞麦种子形状、色泽等均存在明显差异，川荞1号主要呈黑色长锥形，而其他3种荞麦主要呈短锥形，米荞1号果皮呈米白色，迪苦果皮呈灰褐色；同时，4个品种苦荞麦种子千粒重和含水量亦存在显著差异；此外，4个品种苦荞麦中除个别成分有无之外，整体离子流峰形基本一致，共分析鉴定了包括黄酮类、氨基酸类、生物碱类等27个化合物。研究结果可为苦荞麦优良品种选育、优选质量控制指标提供较为全面的理论依据和参考，对进一步开发利用苦荞麦资源具有一定的指导意义。
To explore the differences in seed morphological characters and identify the chemical constituents of Tartary buckwheat varieties of Chuanqiao No.1, Xiqiao No.1, Miqiao No.1 and Di ku, the morphological differences of different varieties Tartary buckwheat were observed, and the 1 000-grain weight and water content were measured. Ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-orbitrap HRMS (UPLC-Q-Orbitrap HRMS) was used to quickly identify the chemical constituents of four varieties of Tartary buckwheat. As results, there were obvious differences in seed shape and color among the four buckwheat varieties. Chuanqiao No. 1 was black and long cone-shaped, while the other three buckwheat varieties were short cone-shaped. The seed coat of Miqiao No. 1 was beige, and the seed coat of Di ku was gray; at the same time, the 1 000-grain weight and water content of four buckwheat varieties were also significantly different. In addition, the overall ion flow peak shapes of the four varieties of Tartary buckwheat were basically the same except for individual components. A total of 27 compounds were identified, including flavonoids, amino acids, alkaloids and so on. The results can provide a comprehensive theoretical basis and reference for the selection and breeding of excellent varieties of Tartary buckwheat and the optimization of quality control indexes. Furthermore, it has a certain guiding significance for further developing and utilizing the resources of Tartary buckwheat.