油菜轴流脱粒装置作业参数对损失率及产尘浓度的影响
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国家自然科学基金(31671592)资助。


Effects of operating parameters of rapeseed axial flow threshing device on loss rate and dust production concentration
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    摘要:

    针对油菜收获机械在工作过程中产生大量粉尘,危害人体健康、污染环境等问题,对油菜轴流脱粒装置作业参数对脱粒损失率和呼吸性粉尘浓度峰值的影响进行了试验研究。以滚筒转速、脱粒间隙、钉齿间距为试验因素,以脱粒损失率、呼吸性粉尘浓度峰值为试验指标,进行二次回归正交旋转组合试验,建立了各因素与脱粒损失率、呼吸性粉尘浓度峰值之间的回归模型,分析了各因素对指标的影响并对各因素进行优化。结果表明:各因素对脱粒损失率的影响大小顺序为:脱粒间隙>滚筒转速>钉齿间距;各因素对呼吸性粉尘浓度峰值的影响大小顺序为:钉齿间距>脱粒间隙>滚筒转速。对试验所得最优参数进行验证试验,结果显示,当滚筒转速548 r·min-1、脱粒间隙19.4 mm、钉齿间距150 mm时,脱粒损失率为0.47%,呼尘性粉尘浓度峰值为31.62 mg·m-3,脱粒损失率相对误差为2.13%,呼吸性粉尘浓度峰值相对误差为4.59%。相对误差较小,优化模型可靠。研究结果可为农作物收获机械的降尘、除尘方案设计提供参考。

    Abstract:

    When working, rape harvester machines produce plenty of dust, harming human health and polluting the environment. This paper carried out test investigations on the influences of operating parameters of the axial flow threshing device on threshing loss rate and peak respirable dust concentration. Taking drum speed, threshing gap and spike-tooth spacings as test factors, taking threshing loss rate and peak respirable dust concentration as test indexes, a quadratic regression orthogonal rotation combined test was carried out to build the regression model between test factors and threshing loss rate, peak respirable dust concentration indexes to analyze the influences of various factors on indexes. Moreover, test factors were optimized. The test results showed that the influences of various factors on the threshing loss rate are as follows: threshing clearance > drum speed > nail tooth spacing,and the influences of various factors on the peak respirable dust concentration are as follows: nail tooth spacing > threshing clearance > drum speed. The optimized parameters are as follows: the rotating speed of the drum is 548 r·min-1, and the threshing clearance is 19.4 mm, and the nail tooth spacing is 150 mm. Test was implemented to verify the parameters optimization results. The test results showed that the threshing loss rate is 0.47%, and the peak respirable dust concentration is 31.62 mg·m-3. The relative error of threshing loss rate of is 2.13% and the relative error of peak respirable dust concentration is 4.59%. The relative error is very small, so the optimized model is reliable. This paper can provide some research basis for the dust reduction and dedusting schemes of crop harvest machines.

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  • 在线发布日期: 2021-01-22