With unique appearance and excellent mechanical properties, nature bamboo has an irreplaceable position in the field of building materials such as concrete and steel. This paper discussed the application status of round bamboo materials in building foundation, beam and column, joints and other parts, and analyzed the construction techniques of round bamboo building. The research showed that the round bamboo building industry needs to be upgraded systematically. The large-scale industrial sorting of natural bamboo culms should be carried out to form graded round bamboo materials marked by bamboo species, diameter and mechanical properties. The components and joints of round bamboo should be designed on the basis of graded round bamboo and mainly processed in factory and supported standardized processing technology and performance testing standards. Modular design and construction technology are beneficial to the construction and promotion of round bamboo building.