安徽省农业科学院学科建设项目（17A0513）, 国家虾蟹产业技术体系（CARS-48）, 安徽省水产产业技术体系（2016-84）和特色水产动物种质创制与利用创新团队（2019YL026）共同资助。
为探究安徽河川沙塘鳢不同地理群体遗传多样性差异和遗传分化水平，研究采集了安徽长江、新安江流域的4个地理群体，共142个河川沙塘鳢样本。选择线粒体基因作为分子标记，进行测序与分析。结果显示，标记全长1 291 bp，包含52个变异位点，定义了15个单倍型。4个群体总体遗传多样性水平远高于群体内遗传多样性水平，分子变异主要来源于群体间。所有群体形成了3个反映物种的地理分布关系的支系，且未曾发生过扩张。河川沙塘鳢群体间的分化程度很高，具有较高的保护和选育价值。
In order to clarify the genetic diversity and differentiation of Odontobutis potamophila from different geographic populations in Anhui Province, 142 individuals from the Yangtze River and Xin'an River Basin were collected. The mitochondrial genes were chosen as the marker to analyze. A total of 1 291 bp marker was obtained which contained 52 variable sites and defined 15 haplotypes. The genetic diversity of four populations was higher than intra-populations, and the molecular variation was mainly from inter-populations. All populations gathered three branches that reflected the geographical distribution of the species, and no expansion had occurred. This study revealed a high inter-population differentiation level of Odontobutis potamophila and also suggested a high conservation and selective?breeding value between each population.