Using Fatmelon-shaped jujube grafted with original rootstock, wild jujube rootstock and coppers tree rootstock as experimental material, the effects of variety on the growth, fruit setting characters and fruit quality of Fatmelon-shaped jujube were explored. The results showed that the growth increments of jujube head and shedding shoot of Fatmelon-shaped jujube grafted with coppers tree rootstock was higher than those of grafted with the original and wild jujube rootstock. The number of shedding shoot and fruit setting rate of Fatmelon-shaped jujube grafted with coppers tree and wild jujube rootstock were significantly different, but there was no significant difference between the coppers tree and original rootstock grafted one. The fruit growth curve of Fatmelon-shaped jujube grafted with three rootstocks was typical double S-shaped. Fruit longitudinal and horizontal diameter of Fatmelon-shaped jujube grafted with coppers tree rootstock were the largest, while those wild jujube rootstock grafted one was the minimum. The average single fruit weight, fruit edible rate, the content of soluble solids, total sugar, reducing sugar, titrable acid and vitamin C of Fatmelon-shaped jujube grafted with coppers tree rootstock were similar to that of the original rootstock grafted one, and the differences between coppers tree and wild jujube rootstock grafted one was significant. The average single fruit weight of Fatmelon-shaped jujube grafted with coppers tree rootstock was the largest, with the highest fruit edible rate. By comprehensive comparison, Fatmelon-shaped jujube grafted with coppers tree rootstock had good growth and fruit quality, which is suitable for promotion.