In this paper, two kinds of fibers of poplar 107 (fibers of tension wood and fibers of normal wood) were obtained by macerating with mixture of hydrogen peroxide and glacial acetic acid, respectively. The macerating fibers were obtained by chromic acid. Meanwhile, other two kinds of fibers in normal wood, i.e., chemical pulp fibers was obtained with kraft pulping and refining chemical pulp fibers was prepared by further pulping the chemical pulp fibers . Topography features of five kinds of different treatment fiber surfaces were scanned by atomic force microscope (AFM), and that were further observed and compared. The results showed that the primary wall surfaces of fibers in tension wood were clearer to observe than those in normal wood, and the primary wall surfaces of fibers macerated by chromic acid were clearer to observe than that by mixture of hydrogen peroxide and glacial acetic acid. Compared with macerating fibers, the arrangement of microfibrils in secondary wall of chemical pulp fibers could be revealed clearly. Compared with chemical pulp fibers, the arrangement of the microfibrils was disordered, which presented fibrillating.